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Food security essays

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Comparative Essay on Food Security …

LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the food security essays game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is comparative essay, applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Essays! Unique, proven systems are put in comparative essay place for security, (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for essay introductions, upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed €” the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way.

— Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the steps €” keeps you from food essays, worrying about study panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in security length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is writing seattle, misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids. Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type.

Grading is invariably anonymous to food security, protect professors and students alike. Unlike college and professional resume writing service seattle, graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and food, practices of papers on ph levels, individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to food, breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Papers! Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC.

I.e., identify the security essays Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. Introductions! (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is food security essays, followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by essay about only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Security Essays! Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and research levels, diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York.

As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. Security Essays! I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in essay organization worksheet the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to security, her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world.

At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of use case study of railway reservation system, Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for essays, Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Study Of Railway Reservation! Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of food security, personal jurisdiction as a defense.

4 €” OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Levels! Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the food racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on service the same ground in food essays small claims court, Manhattan.

You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is about, relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof.

Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by food security essays a third person (e.g., an what you essay, eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in essays order to essay, determine the food security essays rights and research papers, duties of parties to an action, and to essays, bind the what parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is brought, and food security, personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to essay worksheet, the door or other conspicuous place at food essays the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of essay divisibility, same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). Security Essays! A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of use case study reservation, personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to security essays, acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and about rules, that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond.

Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on essays a one-way street). However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of resume seattle, law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for essays, trial of a lawsuit.

The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and of railway, defend (policy!). Food Essays! Unless compelling reasons exist to of railway reservation, direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in essays the county where the use case study reservation action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of food essays, allotted time divided into essay 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Security! Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on organization each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. Security! However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for about divisibility, purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground.

More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in food security Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed.

[My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the resume service Steps to all six, from food security, this point on I shall work on each question to organization worksheet, completion before going on security essays to the next .] Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is essay organization worksheet, overriding , (i.e., governs the security determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of use case of railway reservation system, No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . Food Essays! . . No.4; . . . Resume Writing Service! 5; . Security! . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for comparative, waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides.

5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to food security essays, note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and about divisibility rules, since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. Security! It is part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is comparative essay, necessary to state all of the law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here.

However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in security the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to of railway system, mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of essays, business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and essay about divisibility rules, complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence.

Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. Food Security Essays! [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the essay organization worksheet claim on appeal is after trial. Security Essays! However, waived upon what scares you essay the taking of an food security essays, appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on use case of railway reservation system appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an food essays, eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Introductions! Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential.

Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and food essays, a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to research papers on ph, drive is food security, negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and research on ph, that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of essays, action in a subsequent suit.

Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and scares, a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and food security, articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the you essay enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of directors.

They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of security essays, Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. Essay Organization! When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in food security her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to essay, gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of food, directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to research papers on ph levels, first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of essays, action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to research papers levels, post $25,000 security for security essays, costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the on ph RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for food, indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and essay divisibility, purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to food essays, quash these actions.

How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the introductions corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the essays corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the on ph levels corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to security, a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is research papers levels, a holder of 5 percent of any class of food security essays, outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation.

The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the essay demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Food Essays! Note that in order to minimize the use case of railway reservation possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at essays least 5 percent of essay, any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of security essays, defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of scares, good faith and food, reasonable care in the circumstances. You Essay! The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and food, directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the research levels motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions.

Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the food essays ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of what, same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for food, 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises.

In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on essay worksheet the board, and failure to state a cause of essays, action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in research on ph levels your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the essays relevant premises noted in you essay Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in food security writing the actual response. Essay About Divisibility! Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of food essays, a logical sequence for discussion €” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically.

Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in essay organization worksheet her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on food security behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and use case system, statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Food Security Essays! Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and research levels, minutes of stockholder meetings on essays demand if she has been a stockholder of worksheet, record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders.

Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the security essays Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the essay plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for food, not making such demand (e.g., the what scares you essay board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on food security essays the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of about divisibility rules, RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to food security, minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to scares you essay, post security for security, costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at what you essay least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the security essays value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of study of railway reservation, one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering.

Their value at the time of the security suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the comparative motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the food security essays use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the divisibility action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and security essays, reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to resume service seattle, begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against.

The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against food essays, expenses of defending against resume, the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to essays, act in good faith. Of Railway! However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in security a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the professional resume service seattle purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the security essays resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to what you essay, renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of food security, which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z.

In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by organization the terms of food, which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in research papers all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of security essays, his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in professional writing service seattle 2000 T, falling asleep at food security his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the essay rules 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000.

5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the food security rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary €” A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to essay rules, take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to essays, a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is about rules, so despite the fact that the food security essays will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making.

Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the use case study system testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from essays, all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the use case of railway reservation system natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to food security, a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Essay! Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate.

B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon security essays which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to professional resume writing service seattle, sort them out at this point. Food Security! Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in research papers on ph Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is essays, that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of comparative introductions, a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to food essays, make sense.

B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the essay 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the essays codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the research papers levels 1994 will. Security! There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in study of railway reservation executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil.

Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the food essays codicil was destroyed inadvertently in worksheet 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and food, B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the essay worksheet 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from essays, all other articles of the study reservation system same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the essays testator when he dies. When an papers, ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to food security, be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to about divisibility, T's death, the security republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from about, T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses.

By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to food essays, beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the study of railway reservation $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to food essays, take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to resume service, the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate.

NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. Food Security! The rationale for organization worksheet, not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the will being probated is food, presumably the conflict of writing seattle, interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the food will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of comparative essay introductions, Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of food security, interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and essay introductions, garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to security, put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)]

Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to about divisibility rules, prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of food security essays, Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of organization, 2009E (evening division). Security Essays! The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by essay organization their professors. Food Essays! Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the essay verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. Food! His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section.

Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and comparative, presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is food essays, wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over essay worksheet, the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). Food Essays! . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. Study Of Railway Reservation System! LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the food security essays issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6]

Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32.

INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on comparative essay this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Food Security Essays! Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is research on ph, your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book.

You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the food answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from organization worksheet, any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to security essays, identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. Professional Resume Writing! A.). When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the essays pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling.

2. If a court rule or a statute is worksheet, relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by security number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and research papers levels, leave a left margin. Write your identification number in security the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to essay introductions, anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and food security, the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. Introductions! You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the food security following:

1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by on ph the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an essays, individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by divisibility an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by essays an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the on ph complaint by food security registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight.

A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm. Divisibility Rules! Respond fully to security essays, the following memorandum from professional resume seattle, one of your employers. €śI Quit€ť is food essays, not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Essay Rules! Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and security essays, Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in organization Prussia and security, lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home.

In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and papers on ph levels, Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to essays, procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at rules their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and food security essays, validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years.

Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the about bank€™s claim against him for security essays, $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and introductions, summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the food security essays United States District Court for the District of Swabia.

In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the what scares federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. Security Essays! The next day, you receive the comparative introductions following memorandum from the food same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. What You Essay! Isolde. Date: Dec.

12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the food essays accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a student€™s essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in research papers levels blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an food, issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the essay worksheet statement of R ule, and essays, the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of about, premise (relevant law) to security, begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time).

Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only professional resume service, suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the food security essays topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties.

First Commercial is a citizen of comparative, Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for food, one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to scares, know how long Isolde had been living in food security essays Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the resume writing time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in food essays Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is scares you essay, still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of food, 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is what, found to have relocated to Swabia with the food intent of staying for professional writing seattle, the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse.

The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. Security Essays! The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack.

However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the on ph alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in food security essays Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in papers the enforcing court. Security Essays! [We would have preferred a discussion at divisibility rules this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by security essays making better use of the research papers on ph facts to food, support your analysis.

The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on writing service collateral attack is because she did not appear at security all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in professional seattle which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is food essays, necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. Divisibility Rules! At least one student referred to food, it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision.

Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of essay organization worksheet, preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the security essays assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Papers On Ph! Others simply didn€™t know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on food security the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the system State.€ť The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of entering into food security the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristan€™s delivery of the essay loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. Food Security! [It is professional service, probably not necessary to stretch the security construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem.

The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by an agent.€ť Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the worksheet partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of security essays, law.

The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the levels long-arm statute is sufficient to food security, provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the levels Shoe standard? [While it is food security, implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the professional service seattle argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the food essays contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Papers! Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in food essays the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and essay organization, she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over food security, any disputes to the contract. Research On Ph! (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the food security essays fairness factors, defining €śfair play and substantial justice,€ť articulated in essay introductions the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision?

In weighing the relative burden on essays Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to comparative essay introductions, give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the food security essays dispute would be well served because of the you essay choice of security, law provision; Prussia has an interest in worksheet adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the security several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for comparative essay introductions, Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction.

[Many of security essays, you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and on ph levels, service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the security essays problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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lpmove resume Explain how to configure printer classes, set the default printer, change the default printer class, remove a printer's configuration, start the LP print service, and stop the LP print service using the appropriate commands. Given a scenario, identify the appropriate commands to food essays specify a destination printer, accept and essay divisibility reject print jobs, enable and disable printers, and move print jobs. Managing the print system involves monitoring the lp system and uncovering reasons it might not be working properly. Other routine tasks involve cancelling print jobs and enabling or disabling a printer while it's being serviced. The following sections provide instructions for the daily tasks you will perform to security essays manage printers and on ph levels the print scheduler. Note that the commands described in the following sections require superuser access . Deleting Printers and Managing Printer Access. You can use Print Manager to delete a printer from the system.

To do so, in the Print Manager main window, highlight the printer that you want to essays delete and, from the top toolbar, select Printer. From the pull-down menu, select Delete Printer, as shown in Figure 6.6. The printer queue is deleted from the system. To delete a printer from the worksheet command line, you issue the following command on the system where the printer is connected: The printer is deleted from the system. Perhaps you do not want to remove the printer from the print server, but you want to keep a particular system from printing to the print server. In this case, you issue the food security essays following command on the print client from which you want to delete the printer: The print server is professional seattle deleted from the print client's /etc/lp/Systems file.

To stop accepting print requests on a particular printerperhaps because a printer will be going offline for repairsyou type the following command on the system where the printer is food essays physically connected: This command prevents any new requests from entering the research papers printer's queue while you are in the process of removing the printer. Use the accept command, described later in food this section, to allow the queue to start accepting requests. To allow a printer to keep taking requests but to stop the research papers on ph levels printer from printing the requests, you issue the following command on the system where the printer is physically connected: Printing will be halted on this system until you issue the following command: Using enable in the bash Shell If you are using the bash shell, be aware that enable is a built-in shell command that conflicts with the LP system's enable command. When using bash , you must give the full path to enable, /usr/bin/enable . When stopping or disabling a printer, you might need to move existing jobs that have been queued to that printer. To move print jobs from one printer to another, you use the lpmove command, as follows: The arguments for the lpmove command are described in Table 6.4. The name of the printer from which all print requests will be moved. The name of the printer to food which all print requests will be moved.

If you move all the resume print requests to another printer, the lpmove command automatically stops accepting print requests for printer1 . Food Security Essays! The following command is necessary if you want to begin accepting new print requests for the printer: In the following example, the lpmove command moves print requests from the printer eps1 to the printer eps2 (for example, when eps1 is being taken down for essay about rules, maintenance). Security Essays! When the eps1 printer is ready to start accepting print jobs again, you use the accept command to resume accepting print requests on eps1 : You can put several locally attached printers into essay organization worksheet, a group called a printer class . This might be helpful if you have several printers sitting next to food each other and it doesn't matter which printer your job goes to. After you have set up a printer class, users can specify the class (rather than individual printers) as the destination for a print request. The first printer in of railway reservation system the class that is free to food essays print is used. The result is faster turnaround because all printers are utilized. You create printer classes by issuing the professional seattle lpadmin command with the -c option, as follows: No default printer classes are known to the print service; printer classes exist only food security essays if you define them.

The following are three ways you can define printer classes: By printer type (for example, PostScript) By location (for example, 5th floor) By workgroup or department (for example, Accounting) Alternatively, a class might contain several printers that are used in use case study system a particular order. The LP print service always checks for an available printer in the order in which printers were added to a class.

Therefore, if you want a high-speed printer to be accessed first, you would add it to the class before you added a low-speed printer. Food! As a result, the high-speed printer would handle as many print requests as possible. Comparative Introductions! The low-speed printer would be used as a backup printer for security, when the high-speed printer was in use. Printer class names must be unique and can contain a maximum of you essay, 14 alphanumeric characters and underscores. You are not obliged to define printer classes.

You should add them only if you determine that using printer classes would benefit the security users on the network. Step by Step 6.3 describes how to define a printer class. Step By Step 6.3: Defining Printer Classes. The arguments that are used with lpadmin to define printer classes are described in Table 6.5. This option allows you to specify the name of the printer you are adding to a class of printers. This option allows you to specify the of railway reservation printer class name. The specified printer is food security essays added to scares you essay the end of the class's list in the print server's /etc/lp/classes/ printer-class file. If the printer class does not exist, it is created. Food Essays! You can verify what printers are in a printer class by using the lpstat command: The following example adds the printer luna to the class roughdrafts : You use the lpstat command to divisibility verify the status of a printer. You can use this command to determine which printers are available for use or to examine the characteristics of a particular printer.

The lpstat command syntax is as follows: The lpstat command options are described in security essays Table 6.6. Table 6.6. Study Of Railway! lpstat Command Syntax and Options. Reports whether printers are accepting requests. Essays! You can also specify a specific list of printers, as in lpstat -a eps1 eps2 eps3 . Shows the system's default printer. Shows whether a printer is active or idle, when it was enabled or disabled, and whether it is accepting print requests. You can specify multiple printer names with this command.

You use spaces or commas to separate printer names. If you use spaces, you need to enclose the reservation list of printer names in quotes. If you don't specify the security printer name, the reservation system status of security essays, all printers is displayed. Shows the description of the specified printer. Shows the characteristics of the specified printer. Shows status information about the LP print service, including the status of all printerswhether they are active and whether they are accepting print requests. Prints the status of use case of railway, output requests for users, in food security essays which logon-IDs can be one or all of the following: user A user on the local system, as in lpstat -u bcalkins . all All users on all systems specified, as in lpstat -u all . The following is an example of the lpstat command: The system responds with this:

The following example requests a description of the printers hplaser1 and hplaser2 : The following example requests the characteristics of the printer hplaser : The routine task of managing printers involves managing their queues. Occasionally, large jobs are submitted that are not needed and can be aborted. Other times you might want to comparative introductions put a high-priority job ahead of other jobs that are waiting to food security be printed. The following sections outline some of the routine tasks you might want to perform on the printer queues. To remove someone else's print job from the print queue, you first need to become root. Of Railway Reservation System! Then you need to determine the request ID of the print request to cancel, by security, using the lpstat command as follows: The system displays this: In this example, the user bcalkins has one request in the queue. The request ID is eps1-1 . You can cancel a print request by using the cancel command, which has the following syntax:

The arguments for the cancel command are described in Table 6.7. The request ID of a print request to organization be cancelled. Food! You can specify multiple request IDs. Professional Writing Service Seattle! You use spaces or commas to separate request IDs. If you use spaces, you need to enclose the list of request IDs in quotes.

Specifies the printer for which you want to food cancel the currently printing print request. You can specify multiple printer names with this command. You can use spaces or commas to separate printer names. The following example cancels the eps1-3 and study system eps1-4 print requests: The system responds with this: The following example cancels the print request that is food essays currently printing on about divisibility rules, the printer eps1 : The system responds with this: Sending a Print Job at food security, a Higher Priority. The lp command with the -q option assigns the print request a priority in the print queue.

You specify the priority level as an integer from 0 to 39 . You use 0 to indicate the highest priority and 39 to indicate the lowest. Essay! If no priority is specified, the system administrator assigns the default priority for food, a print service. The following example illustrates how to send a print job to the printer eps1 , with the highest priority: Limiting User Access to a Printer. You can allow or deny users access to a printer by using the lpadmin command and adding usernames to organization an access list. The access list can be a list of specific users who are denied access (deny access list) or a list of users who are allowed access (allow access list). By default, all users are allowed access to a printer. This is the syntax for modifying access lists by using the lpadmin command:

The arguments for the lpadmin command that are used to control access to a printer are described in security essays Table 6.8. This option allows you to specify the name of the printer to which the professional seattle allow or deny user access list applies. This option allows you to specify the usernames to be added to the allow user access list. You can specify multiple usernames with this command. Food Essays! You use spaces or commas to separate names. If you use spaces, you need to essay worksheet enclose the food list of names in quotes. Table 6.9 describes the valid values for use case study system, user-list . This option allows you to food specify the usernames to be added to the deny user access list. Scares You Essay! You can specify multiple usernames with this command.

You use spaces or commas to separate names. If you use spaces, you need to enclose the essays list of names in quotes. The specified users are added to the allow or deny user access list for the printer in one of the following files on the print server: Table 6.9 provides the valid values for user-list . Table 6.9. Values for Allow and Deny User Access Lists. Value for use case study of railway reservation, user-list. A user on any system. All users on all systems.

No user on any system. A user on the specified system only. A user on security, the local system only. A user on what scares you essay, any system. All users on food security essays, all systems.

All users on the specified system. All users on you essay, the local system. Specifying none in security user-list If you specify none as the value for user-list in the allow user access list, the about divisibility rules following files are not created for the print server: The following example gives only the users bcalkins and essays bholzgen access to the printer eps1 : The following example denies the users bcalkins and bholzgen access to the printer eps2 : You can use the lpstat command to view access information about professional writing, a particular printer. The following command displays access information for the printer named eps1 : The system responds with this: Accepting or Rejecting Print Requests for a Printer. As root, you can stop accepting print requests for the printer by using the reject command. The command syntax is as follows: The arguments for the reject command are described in Table 6.10. Tells the users why the printer is rejecting print requests. reason is stored and displayed whenever a user checks on the status of the printer by using lpstat -p . Specifies the name of the printer that will stop accepting print requests. The following example stops the essays printer eps1 from accepting print requests:

The system responds with this: Any queued requests will continue printing as long as the printer is writing service enabled. The following example sets the printer eps1 to accept print requests again: The system responds with this: Cancelling a Print Request from a Specific User. You need to be the root or lp user if you want to cancel print requests of other users. Food Essays! You cancel a print request from reservation, a specific user with the security essays cancel command. The syntax is as follows: The arguments for use case study reservation system, the cancel command are described in essays Table 6.11. Cancels the essay about divisibility rules print request for a specified user(s). user-list can be one or more usernames. You use spaces or commas to separate usernames.

If you use spaces, you need to enclose the list of security essays, names in quotes. Specifies the printer(s) for which you want to cancel the specified user's print requests. You use spaces or commas to separate printer names. If you use spaces, you need to enclose the list of printer names in quotes. If you don't specify printer-name , the user's print requests will be cancelled on comparative essay, all printers. The following example cancels all the print requests submitted by the user bcalkins on the printer luna : The system responds with this: The following example cancels all the print requests submitted by the user bcalkins on all printers:

The system responds with this: Changing the Priority of a Print Request. You can change the priority of food security, a print request by using the professional writing service following lp command: The options for food essays, the lp command are described in Table 6.12. Specifies the request ID(s) of a print request that you want to change.

You use a space or a comma to separate request IDs. If you use spaces, you need to enclose the list of request IDs in what you essay quotation marks. Specifies one of the three ways to change the priority of security, a print request: hold Places the print request on professional resume writing service, hold until you cancel it or instruct the LP print service to resume printing the request. resume Places a print request that has been on security, hold in the queue. Research! It will be printed according to essays its priority and essay placement in the queue. If you put a hold on a print job that is already printing, resume puts the print request at the head of the queue so that it becomes the next request printed.

immediate Places a print request at food security essays, the head of the queue. If a request is already printing, you can put that request on hold to you essay allow the next request to print immediately. Assigns the print request a priority in essays the print queue. You specify priority-level as an integer from 0 to 39 . 0 indicates the highest priority, and 39 indicates the lowest priority. In the following example, the command changes a print request with the request ID eps1-29 to priority level 1: The Solaris print scheduler, lpsched , schedules all print requests on print servers. If printouts are not coming out of the printer, you might need to what restart the food print scheduler. To restart the print scheduler, you use the professional writing service svcadm restart scv:/application/print/server:default command. If a print request was printing when the print scheduler stopped running, that request would be printed in its entirety when you restart the print scheduler. You first stop the scheduler by food, typing the following:

To restart the scheduler, you type the following: When you add a printer, you are given the option of papers levels, selecting that printer as the default printer for that particular system. You might want to set the default printer at the user level so that, on a particular system, users can specify their own default printers. If a user doesn't provide a printer name when sending a print job, the security print command searches for the default printer in the following order: System's default printer.

These variables can be set in the user's .profile file. The lp command checks LPDEST and then PRINTER . If neither variable has been set, the comparative print command searches for the variable named _default in the following file: An entry in this file that names printer1 as the default printer looks like this: If the $HOME/.printers file does not exist, the /etc/printers.conf file is checked. An entry in this file would look like this: If the _default variable is not set in the /etc/printers.conf file and if you're running a name service, the name service database is checked as described in Chapter 12, Naming Services. If the destination printer name cannot be located in security any of organization, these files, the print request cannot be processed. Modifying the Printer with Print Manager.

You can use Solaris Print Manager to modify a printer after it has been added to the system. Modifications that can be made to a printer via Print Manager include the following: Giving the printer description. Indicating the printer port. Listing file contents. Providing fault notification. Selecting a default printer. Printing a banner page. Accepting and security essays processing print requests. Providing a user access list.

To modify a printer via the comparative introductions Print Manager GUI, you select Printers from the food top toolbar, and then you select Modify Printer Properties, as shown in Figure 6.7. The Modify Printer Properties window appears, as shown in Figure 6.8. Figure 6.8. The Modify Printer Properties window. You can modify the essay selected printer by selecting or filling in the appropriate fields in the Modify Printer Properties window.

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Comparative Essay on Food Security …

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· The Atomic Bomb (United States of America) The United States of America remains to the only security country to have used nuclear weapons in war. Two atomic bombs, namely “Little boy” and “Fat man,” were dropped on the Japanese cities; Nagasaki and Hiroshima respectively. The two bombs killed 129,000 people, some instantly and some later due to radiation. The massive mushroom cloud created by what, the Little Boy.

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courtly love essays Washington State University. We are so familiar with the love tradition that we mistake it for a natural and universal phenomenon and have no impulse to food essays, inquire into its origins. But it is difficult if not impossible to show love to be anything more than an artistic phenomenon or construct -- a literary or performative innovation of the Middle Ages. The term Courtly Love (l'amour courtois) was coined by Gaston Paris in 1883 (in the research journal Romania ), so the first problem is that we tend to let the Victorians define it for food security essays us. The terms that appear in the actual medieval period are Amour Honestus (Honest Love) and Fin Amor (Refined Love). The concept was new in the Middle Ages. The medievals were the first to discover (or invent) it, the research papers on ph levels first to express this form of romantic passion. There was no literary nor social framework for it in the Christian world before the end of the food essays 11th century; the Western tradition had no room for the expression of love in literature: there's none in Beowulf or The Song of use case reservation, Roland . Security! The religious tradition speaks of love, but that's agape -- platonic/christian love of what, all humankind as your brothers and sisters. In classical literature we witness what's called love, but, as exemplified well by the case of Dido for Aeneas, the passion is food security often described in firy terms and always reads like eros -- hot lust. (Medea and Phaedra are other cautionary examples, and service seattle, love plunges them into crime and disgrace.) Ovid's Ars Armitoria and Remedia Amoris ( The Art of essays, Love and worksheet, The Cure for food security essays Love ) are ironic and didactic treatises generated from a premise that love is a minor peccadillo. Ovid gives rules for illicit conduct.

Rather unlike Courtly Love, the study of railway reservation system literature of the Church is food anti-feminist. And the tastemakers in writing, feudal society marry not for love but for real estate and heirs. It's been said that in the Middle Ages you married a fief and got a wife thrown in with the bargain. Idealized love goes against the utilitarian economics of marriage, and food essays, passion was forbidden by the Church, so until the courtly version came along, Love was duty and Luv was sinful. Scares You Essay! Thus, Courtly Love emerged and remained outside of marriage. (Love and marriage don't go together like a horse and carriage.) C.S. Lewis decided that its key features were humility, courtesy, and adultery. Scholars who have believed that Courtly Love was a true historical development rely on the literature to read back a history. They have decided that it all began in food security essays, southern France, which was sufficiently peaceful and isolated for such a movement to develop. Old Roman war dogs retired here (Avignon; Toulouse; Nimes under the domaine of Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine) and the leisure class, a wealthy and self-sufficient society, found a new fad. (After all, you can't love if you're poor -- check your Andreas Capellanus.) Intellectuals from all over essay organization worksheet were attracted to the area's courts. The south was freer and more tolerant, and was pluralistic (with Arabs, Jews, and Byzantines numbered among the residents).

And perhaps the men outnumbered the women (check Rules 3 and 31 in Andreas). What we find are troubadour poems. The troubadours were not really wandering minstrels but mostly rich young men, using the Provençal langue d'Oc . Circa 1071 is the birth year for the first known troubadour, William IX of Poitiers. [In the food north, feudal knights preferred epic poems of essay, chivalry like the Arthurian tales crossing the channel. But trouvères picked up the troubadour tradition, transposed into the langue d'Oil . In Germany they were called minnesingers.] Consider Arnaut Daniel's Chanson do.ill mot son plan e prim (A Song with Simple Words and Fine) and Bernard de Ventadour's Can vei la lauzeta mover (When I See the Lark Moving). Guillaume de Machaut comes later, in the fourteenth century, but is a key big name in love songs: Amours me fait desirer (Love Fills Me with Desire), Se ma dame m'a guerpy (If My Lady Has Left Me), Se je souspir (If I Sigh), Douce dame jolie (Fair and security, Gentle Lady), etc.

The formes fixes of the poetry included: Ballade: a a b (or, if a = ab, then ab ab c) Virelai: A b b a A b b a A. Rondeau: A B a A a b A B In other words, there were learned combinations of rhymes, stanzas, and concepts. Some of the music survives but we've lost the form of the writing seattle rhythms. The Courtly Love sung of in food security essays, the songs represents a new structure, not that of the Church or of feudalism, but an scares overturning of both.

Love is now a cult -- a sort of religion but outside of normal religion -- and a code -- outside of feudalism but similarly hierarchical. Security! The language and the relationships are similar (and the language, sometimes borrowed from religion, ends up borrowed back by religion in certain lyrics). In feudalism the vassal is the man of his sovereign lord; in courtly love, the vassal is the man of his sovereign mistress. In religion, the sinner is penitent and asks that Mary intercede on essay organization his behalf with Christ, who is Love. In courtly love, the sinner (against the laws of security, love) asks the mother of the love god, Cupid's mother Venus, to intercede on his behalf with Cupid or Eros, who is the god of papers, love. Food Security Essays! So this new love religion seems to parody real religion. That's the static phenomenon interpreted. But the process of courtly love, a long-standing relationship with standardized procedures, can be extracted from the literature and tales of essay introductions, love in the medieval period.

Here's the deal. Andreas Capellanus describes the optic physiology of the first moments. In short, he sees her. Perhaps she is walking in a garden. Food Security! The vision of her, which is made up of light rays, enters into his eyeball (hence the blind cannot fall in love).

Through a rather circuitous anatomical miracle, the love-ray makes its way down around his esophagus and sticks in his heart. Now he's love-struck. She doesn't know about him at professional resume service seattle, all. Food Security! She is resume writing of high status and daungerous, which means not that she knows Tai Kwon Do but rather that she is standoffish. Essays! He is abject. After haunting himself with visions of her limbs (by the way, she's long gone now), he swoons a lot and follows various of essay divisibility rules, Andreas' rules (you can't eat, you can't sleep; there's no doubt you're in deep). Eventually all this love has to come out somehow, and remarkably it tends to emerge in well-crafted stanzas with rhyme patterns mentioned above and a zippy little meter. Essays! Secretly, the lover writes poems to the lady called complaints (planh in professional resume writing, Provençal) because they are largely constructed of laments about his own suffering. These may be delivered to her by an intermediary. But she remains scornful while he or his friend continues heaving poems in her window tied to rocks.

Before actually getting a poem in security essays, the teeth, she, through some quirky event, will come to writing service, know who has been sending the poems. Eventually she will smile, which means she has accepted him as her drut (dread -- meaning not oh, no, there he is again but rather in the sense of awe: revered one). Next comes the performance of food, tests. The lover gets a token, perhaps a glove or a girdle (not the 18-hour kind -- more a scarf or sash). Study! And the woman gets carte blanche -- jousting, journeys, deeds, anything she wants. Sir Eminem has insulted me.

Kill him. He has to. Food Security Essays! Bring home some pork chops. Those last ones were awful. He has to go slay a wild boar. Fetch me the what molars of the Sultan of Baghdad. He's got to essays, climb the resume writing service widest sea and swim the highest mountain and, though he has nothing against them per se , he's got to hack his way through the Sultan's guards and face the old boy, saying, Render hither thine molars, payan swine! Nay, that likest me not nor will I nother! Then he has to decapitate the Sultan, wrench out the food back teeth, and get back home (probably switching clothes with a palmer at some point), only to find out that now she wants some Baskin Robbins pistachio swirl.

And this goes on comparative introductions endlessly. Supposedly the finer points of courtly love were so complex that Eleanor's daughter, Marie of Champagne, commissioned her chaplain, Andreas, to write a rulebook. Another religious man, Chretien de Troyes (fl. 1160-1172) was ordered to write Lancelot, in which the knight's hesitation at getting into a cart is crucial. Andreas supplies a Latin prose work, De Arte Honeste Amandi ( The Art of Courtly Love , as the title is usually loosely translated), which subsequently has been taken as a textbook on courtly love. But Andreas is a churchman. Check out some of the food security essays chapters in the Table of Contents! And what's your honest reaction to reading some of this. A textbook on illicit love?

31 rules? Why 31? Andreas also provides legal cases! Supposedly, the history of love included Courts of Love ruled by the ladies. There's no historical evidence that this ever took place, and it seems pretty unlikely, but Andreas' material has been referred to so often that it has come to seem true. Here's one case: a woman's husband has died. Can she accept her servant as her lover?

The decision: no, she must marry within her rank. Papers! This is not to say that a widow may not marry a lover, but then he would be her husband, not her lover. Another case: a knight is serving his lady by security defending her name. It's getting embarrassing and she wants it stopped. There is much debate about this case. The decision: no, the woman is wrong; she cannot forbid him from loving her.

A final case: two little kids were playing in their medieval sandbox and research on ph, noticed all the fine ladies and gentlemen engaged in security, the new love fad about them. They imitatively also agreed to professional resume, a contract between them: that they would share a kiss each day. They years have passed and this guy keeps showing up at the door every morning for the kiss. The woman wants to be released from this juvenile contract. Does she have a case? The decision: granted, because the rules specifically state that one cannot be about the business of love until one is around the age of thirteen. Therefore all those kisses given since that age must be returned. (Huh?) So is this all a joke? Andreas also offers a retraction -- an about-face at the end.

And he mentions a duplicem sententiam (a double lesson). Finally all seems sinful and love a heresy. Does Courtly Love heighten the status of women? Yes, compared to their roles merely as cup-bearers and peace-weavers -- that is, in Beowulf for example, servants and political pawn in marriage. But. One must acknowledge that the chivalrous stance is a game the master group plays in elevating its subject to pedestal level. Security Essays! As the sociologist Hugo Beigel has observed, both the about courtly and essays, the romantic versions of love are 'grants' which the male concedes out of his total power.

Both have had the effect of obscuring the patriarchal character of Western culture and in their general tendency to attribute impossible virtues to women, have ended by introductions confirming them in food essays, a narrow and essay divisibility, often remarkably conscribing sphere of security essays, behavior. (Kate Millett, Sexual Politics 37; qtd. in Toril Moi, Sexual/Textual Politics 27) The love story has been one of the essay most pervasive and food essays, effective of all ideological apparatuses: one of the scares most effective smokescreens available in essays, the politics of cultural production. One need only think of the historical popularity of crime stories purveyed as love stories: from the Trojan War -- that paradigmatic linkage of love and genocide -- to study, Bonnie and Clyde, from the subcultural Sid and Nancy to food security essays, the hyperreal Ron and Nancy, we see the degree to which the concept of love is used as a humanizing factor, a way of appropriating figures whom we have no other defensible reason to study reservation system, want to food security essays, identify with. It is also a way of containing whatever political or social threat such figures may pose within the scares you essay more palatable and manipulable (because simultaneously fetishized as universal and individual) motivations of food security essays, love and sexual desire. the love story, a narrative that frequently disguises itself ( qua narrative) or is taken as natural as opposed to the contrivances of other generic forms. (Charnes 136-137). The era of courtly love vanished quickly under the essay impact of economic and cultural devastation brought by the Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229). Northern knights headed by Simon de Montfort swept down, the country was impovershed, freedom disappeared, and an inquisition and northern French dialect were imposed.

The rule of Paris put an end to the south for centuries. Food Security! But the essay organization songs did survive and travel, into food the north by use case study of railway the trouvères, east into Germany with the minnesingers, south to Italy. The Art of Courtly Love . The Early Music Consort of London. London, Virgin Classics Ltd., 1996. D 216190. Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. Tales of Love and Marriage. The Power of Myth . NY: Doubleday, 1988. Security Essays! 186-204. Charnes, Linda. Notorious Identity: Materializing the Subject in Shakespeare . What! Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Dodd, William George. The System of Courtly Love. 1913. Rpt. in Chaucer Criticism, Vol. II . Ed. Richard J. Schoeck and Jerome Taylor. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1961. 1-15. Food Essays! Dodd treats the phenomenon as historical. Donaldson, E. Of Railway! Talbot.

The Myth of Courtly Love. Speaking of Chaucer . NY: W.W. Norton Co., Inc., 1970. Donaldson declares Andreas a clerical joke. Lewis, C.S. The Allegory of security, Love . 1936. NY: Oxford University Press, 1958. Troubadour and Trouvère Songs. Music of the Middle Ages, Vol. 1 . Lyrichord Early Music Series. NY: Lyrichord Discs Inc., 1994.

LEMS 8001.