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Vietnam war photo essay

Vietnam war photo essay

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Vietnam war photo essay

bmc remedy resume As a senior technology professional with over war photo 11 years of development and operational experience, I've learned customers really know their business better than anyone else and collaborating with them is the best way to exceed their expectations. I know good people can overcome huge challenges, we all have a lot left to learn, and that I can work on all these things and have a great time doing them. Specific Strengths Include: Forging relationships with business partners through analysis, evaluating best practices and aligning technology to solve their issues and ideas improve efficiencies. Project management skills: including needs and requirements analysis, application design and war photo essay architecture, application development, testing, training, and to write an essay technical user documentation. Bringing agile methodologies and essay approaches to non-traditional aspects of soziale themen information technology delivery (Certified ScrumMaster).

Exceptional communication skills -- equally proficient discussing business details with customers as holding informed dialog with technologists. Designing implementing industry standard best practices and supporting tools of IT Service Management (ITSM), ITIL, Customer Management Relationship (CRM), Helpdesk, Change Management, Asset Management and Configuration Management Database (CMDB). Vietnam War Photo Essay. Principle Developer (July 2008 - Present): Guide strategic vision of AR System applications. Architecting application platform solutions. Lead designer of AR System integration points.

Lead Remedy Developer (August 2007 - July 2008): Lead design development of provisioning applications. Information Technology Consultant (February 2007 - August 2007): Specializing in BMC/Remedy ActionRequest System. Clients include: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (June 2007 - August 2007) Expedia, Inc., Bellvue, WA (February 2007 - June 2007) Information Systems Manager (July 2005 - February 2007): Provide leadership for software development lifecycle (SDLC) of three distinct technology groups in support of bachelor thesis soziale arbeit themen Dean's office administration tasks. Introduced agile methodologies across all aspects of the vietnam war photo development cycle, resulting in hero, improved customer satisfaction and software quality, while reducing time to war photo delivery. Essay Hero. Work closely with I.T. Director in vietnam war photo essay, setting strategic goals for I.T. department and gilgamesh essay customer relationships.

Budget responsibility for Information Systems, with input to overall I.T. Vietnam War Photo. budget process. Being. Lead BMC Remedy Action Request System architect/developer. Vietnam War Photo. Development Manager (October 2004 - July 2005): Provide leadership for system, software development efforts of three distinct technology groups. Established performance tracking and improved efficiencies. Lead BMC Remedy Action Request System architect/developer. War Photo Essay. Lead Developer (December 2003 - October 2004): Lead development efforts of what scares you essay applications built using BMC Remedy Action Request System (ARS). Information Technology Consultant (November 1997 - December 2003): Specializing in BMC/Remedy ActionRequest System. Clients include: BJC HealthCare,St. Vietnam Essay. Louis, MO (September 2003 - December 2003) TorchQuest, Inc, Austin, TX (February 2003 - July 2003) Regions Bank, Montgomery, AL (December 2002 - February 2003) Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (October 2002 - November 2002) Bull Creek Data, Austin, TX (November 2001 - February 2002) World Savings, San Antonio, TX (August 2001) TManage, Inc., Austin, TX (October 2000 - May 2001) Schlumberger LTD, Austin, TX (February 2000 - October 2000) Ceon, Inc., Redwood City, CA (December 1999) MCI/WorldCom, Hilliard, OH (November 1999 - December 1999) Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA (July 1999 - November 1999) NextCard, Inc., San Francisco, CA (August 1999) Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, IL (February 1999 - June 1999) Transamerica, Los Angles, CA (September 1998) Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (November 1997 - August 1998) In July of 2000 I created a company called Prova LLC.

The main purpose of what scares Prova is to vietnam war photo provide a vehicle for thesis theme 2012, various business ideas. RemedyJobs.com (Prova's first venture) leverages the Internet to provide a direct exchange of information between job seekers experienced in Remedy's ARS and em p loyers looking to fill Remedy-related positions. ARS Administrator/Customer Support Manager (February 1995 - November 1997): Charter Communications International, Inc. - Houston, Texas (known as Phoenix DataNet prior to January 1996 and then as Pointe Communications. NOTE: Company is war photo essay, no longer operational). Computer Training and Internet Course Development (November 1994 - March 1995): Peak, Inc. - Clear Lake Shores, TX.

Since 1995 (ARS 2.13), I have used all versions through 7.1, and ideas to write an essay on college deployed web applications using ARWeb, RemedyWeb, custom scripts (Perl, ASP Cold Fusion) and, most recently, Remedy ARS Mid-Tier (JSP). These applications have run on various UNIX and Windows operating systems and SQL Server, Oracle and Sybase databases. Essay. I have installed, configured and customized the Remedy #8220;out of the box#8221; applications of IT Service Management (ITSM including the individual core components of bachelor thesis soziale Help Desk, Change Management, Asset Management, and Service Level Agreements), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and vietnam Employee Services (Purchasing@Work). Custom-designed and built applications have included help desk, asset management, change management, bug tracking and reservation system Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Vietnam War Photo. Skilled in requirements gathering and development of thesis soziale arbeit themen Application Analysis documents. Experienced in all phases of workflow and vietnam war photo business rules design, project architecture, management and planning. Use Case Study. All facets of vietnam war photo essay documentation including workflow, entity relationship diagrams, design specifications as well as documentation for end user and administrators. General Information Technology Knowledge: UNIX: (Sun Solaris, HP UX, Linux, etc.) General System Administration including Apache web server, ipchains firewall configuration, sendmail, cron jobs and comparative essay introductions disk utilization. Various client tools including email (Pine Elm), WWW (Lynx), Text Editors (vi pico), Gopher, Telnet, FTP, USENET newsgroups (tin, trn pine).

Windows: Including Internet services (IIS) and Exchange Mail. General administrative functions including user set-up, event management, service administration and managing data integrity. Databases: Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server MySQL. War Photo Essay. Languages: Experienced in on college, HTML, JavaScript, TCP/IP, Networking, NT Remote Access, Novell (IPX/SPX), ISDN, Perl/CGI and vietnam PHP. HTML editors (in addition to straight text) include Microsoft Frontpage and to write on college MacroMedia Dreamweaver Ultradev.

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Vietnam war photo essay

Head of Customer Services Resume Sample. This resume is for the post of Head of Customer Services. Vietnam War Photo? The Basic functionality of Head of an essay Customer Services is to war photo essay ensure absolute satisfaction of the customer before, during and of railway system after the purchase or a service. As a Head of Customer Services or a deputy you are required to make sure that your customer is satisfied and your co workers are as much dedicated and passionate as the job demands. A Head of essay Customer Services resume is the initial step of presenting yourself before the an essay, employer. It must be concise and predictable. Do add some previous experiences showing your efficiency in dealing with public and your efficacy in convincing them(Head of Customer Services).

Furthermore we have devised a sample (Head of Customer Services) for you to help you put your strength forward and make your resume prominent. Tips For Editing Head of Customer Services Resume Sample: All you need is to Ctrl C (copy) the entire text of the resume sample and Ctrl V(paste) it on to your Word document. Having trouble with formatting the text when you Ctrl V (paste)? Click here to resolve! Add in war photo your personal information as per our guidelines just like fill-in-blanks.

Adhere the most recent, fresh picture of yours. Enlist your address and available contact information. Enlist you references and ideas to write their contact numbers. Make sure to have the print out on the best quality of paper. Are you looking for…? Customer Relationship Officer Resume Sample, Head of Customer Services Resume Sample. Head customer services (patient)

Services Department, Administration. Applied For: Head of Customer Services/Customer Services Representative. (Head of war photo essay Customer Services/Customer Services Representative ) Qualified and result oriented professional with Experience in administration, customer (patient) Services department, procurement, Reception (Customer Services) with good communication, , interpersonal, presentation and coordination Skills. A dedicated team player .who can bring to your Business additional profession, passion, Productive ideas, enthusiasm and out of The box thinking packed with practical work Experience .Also a trustworthy, colleague Capable of dealing with constant challenges And leading change.

Master in Business Administration (MBA) Gomal University D I Khan Pakistan. Bachelor of Arts (Graduation) Punjab University Lahore Pakistan. Intermediate in computer Sciences (HSSC) FBISE Islamabad Pakistan. Metric in Sciences (SSC) FBISE Islamabad Pakistan. Head of Customer Services/Customer Services Representative. Ali Medical Centre Islamabad Pakistan.

Helping to build good customer relations Supervise more than 200 employees including Receptionist, technical ,drivers ,cafe staff Recruiting staff and doing appraisals Arranging staff meetings Training and development Handling complaints and queries (from customer and staff) Helping to develop a customer services policy for an entire organization (OPD,IPD) Communicating courteously with customers by telephone, email, letter and face to face Collection of feedback of every customer (patient) Analysis statically of feedback forms and follows up Daily, weekly, monthly and annually report to CEO and Chairman Maintain Daily visit sheet room to room and entire organization and report to CEO and Chairman Being involve in staff hiring and appraisals Meeting with CEO, Chairman and other mangers to discuss possible improvements to thesis discount code 2012 customer services Developing customer services procedures, policies and standards for organization and department Supervise directly and or through subordinate ,clerical and lower level technical employees Supervise the war photo, drivers and transportation and maintain the to write an essay on college, transport Arrangement of internal and external meetings with new contractors to make the organization cost effective Maintain daily attendance manually and vietnam war photo essay electronically of subordinates. Additionally performed job as procurement (purchasing) officer. Purchasing all goods and services for organization Contracts with new vendors and arranging meetings Preparation Purchase Request (PRF) Form and approval from gilgamesh being higher authorities like CEO and Chairman Preparation of purchase Order and Good Receiving Note (GRN) Comparison of Quality and rates of Vendors Maintain complete update purchasing records and pricing in the system Schedule market visit and conduct competitor survey Handling and war photo monitoring of use case study of railway reservation system claims to vendors for defective ,shortage, missing parts Plan and manage inventory levels of materials of products Collection of Quotations and comparison, discussion with CEO and Chairman and finalize. Customer Services Representative. Provide general and administrative support Receive and sort mail and deliveries Prepare correspondence and documents Maintain petty cash Control Inventory and relevant to reception area Answer telephone ,screen and war photo direct calls Provide information to callers Greet persons Tidy and maintain the reception area Maintain proper data of patients (customers) Monitor and maintain office equipments Timely Reports provided to bachelor customers Maintain daily visit sheet of customers. One year Diploma in computer software’s Including Office Automation outlook. Essay? Short computer course Typing speed 30 wpm. Father Name: xyz. Passport No: 0000.

Date of Birth: 17-07-1986. Current Residency pak. Visa Status Visit Visa. Marital Status: Single. Postal address: abc. Furnished promptly upon request with supporting documents. Insurance Coordinator Resume Sample.

This resume is a sample for the post of Insurance Coordinator. Study Of Railway Reservation System? Insurance is a department that requires accuracy and good character qualities. An Insurance coordinator’s job is a strict one as he has to coordinate, manage and essay arrange different tasks related to comparative essay introductions the insurance department. Now the question arises how you can write a good and impressive resume for Insurance Coordinator? There are certain specific tips for writing a good resume. You should keep in mind them before starting your resume. Guidance About Writing Insurance Coordinator Resume Sample: The resume for vietnam war photo essay this post must be proper.

It must entails all of your capabilities along with highlighting your good moral character. It must manifest that you are able to work under pressure and a multiple task manager. (You may want to see Insurance Executive Resume Sample, Health Insurance Manager Resume Sample for better understanding and ideas). Below we have given you an example of such a resume that should help you to create an impressive resume. Finally adding (verified) references to your resume is definitely going to thesis theme discount add to vietnam essay the worth of your resume. Tips For Editing Insurance Coordinator Resume Sample: All you need is to Ctrl C (copy) the entire text of the resume sample and Ctrl V(paste) it on to your Word document. Having trouble with formatting the text when you Ctrl V (paste)? Click here to resolve! Add in your personal information as per our guidelines just like fill-in-blanks. Adhere the most recent, fresh picture of arbeit themen yours. Enlist your address and vietnam war photo available contact information.

Enlist you references and their contact numbers. Make sure to have the print out on the best quality of paper. Are you looking for…? Life Medical Insurance Resume Sample , Insurance Underwriter Resume , Insurance Coordinator Resume Sample. Contact No : 0000. To serve the use case study system, organization better with integrity, honesty and confidence; to make use of the opportunities and vietnam essay facilities for the development of thesis theme discount code organizational and individual goals; and ensure better performance with my technical and managerial skills.

Undergoing Medical Insurance Coding Course (CPT, ICD-10) under GMC, Ajman from 16/12/2013. Master’s in Hospital Administration from Amrita School of Arts and Science with 89% aggregate. Graduation in essay Economics with 78%aggregate Plus Two in Commerce with 75% aggregate PG Diploma in Human Resources and Marketing from IGNOU. IELTS scored with band 7. Operating System: MS DOS, Windows 98, 2000, XP Social Media Awareness.

JOB PROFILE – PHARMALINK GROUP (MEDICINA PHARMACIES), SHARJAH, UAE. Supervise, manage and monitor claims submission and re submission to ensure accuracy and processing insurance claims in timely approach. Review and essay being monitor denial reasons and discrepancies, processed claims to minimized revenue loss and maximize reimbursement. Processed claim forms, adjudicates for provision of deductibles, co-pays, co-insurance maximums and provider settlements. Entered claims online for authorization request (PBM Link, E-Rx, Openjet) and coordinating with Dimensions healthcare for HAAD regulation rules and changes. War Photo? Entered claims data into system, reviewed and made sure that there is no omitted information, Entered claims into computer utilizing knowledge of code 2012 CPT, ICD codes and medical terminology. Create a detailed summary report of filled claims for each month and keep tract of the payments, reconciliation, discrepancies and denials for reporting and filling purposes. Vietnam? Checking and review all claims we received from all our branches in thesis arbeit themen Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Northern Emirates.

Segregating Claims per vietnam essay facility, per insurance and per gilgamesh essay TPA. Filing all submitted claims and duplicate of vietnam paper claims for ideas an essay on college audit purposes and war photo essay re submission for our reference if in-case there is a denial. Performing as a liaison between insurance company’s and use case of railway system provider concerning network agreements, enrollment of the essay, New Pharmacies open and thesis theme contract renewal. Assist and conduct a training for the new hired Pharmacists regarding insurance policies and the claims department staff in carrying out vietnam war photo, their duties effectively Inform the pharmacist about bachelor thesis themen new circular received from the insurance companies and new insurance network added in our company Answered inquiries from vietnam providers (Pharmacies) on theme discount code 2012 the subject of claim, eligibility, covered benefits, insurance inclusion, exclusions and approval status issues. JOB PROFILE – INTERNATIONAL RADIOLOGY CENTRE, SHARJAH, UAE:

Attend Insurance customers in the Clinic. Vietnam Essay? Obtain authorizations from respective Insurance providers for Healthcare services in use case of railway the clinic. War Photo? Maintain files and records of all insurance cases. Attend to the customer queries related to Health Insurance. Prepare monthly and weekly and Quarterly MIS of the department. Responsible for you essay assisting patients with the processing of insurance claims and coordinating with insurance companies and TPAs for getting the required claims approval and keeping its proper record.

Contacts insurance companies and patients regarding outstanding balances. Researches and resolves insurance billing issues. War Photo? Assists and reviews claims and use case study of railway reservation E-claims pre and post submission to determine completeness, accuracy and collection of unpaid and denied claims. Facilitate the processing of unpaid and denied claims and receipt of payments from insurance companies. Examine remittance advice to ensure the collection of applicable third party reimbursements. Determine the reason for denied claims and resubmits or follow up with insurance companies to propriety and medical necessity of services by the facility.

Verifies new patients insurances and re-verifies that of patients coming back on service. Submits pre-determinations for clinical medical necessity. Review all claims for accuracy. Works closely with Patient Relations Manager, Customers Care Representatives, Nursing Staff, Insurance Manager and providers to ensure claims accuracy and processing. Completes proper tracking and vietnam war photo reporting for Finance Department regarding collection and error rates. Interact with insurance companies to research and resolve complex claims billing problems/issues . Prepare, and/or maintain reports on billing and thesis 2012 collection activities. War Photo? Establish working relationships with insurance carriers and third party payers Enters data into bachelor thesis arbeit the computer as needed Maintains frequent phone contact with case managers at third party insurance companies. Participate and vietnam contribute to departmental quality initiatives. Perform any job/task as and when assigned by the superior. JOB PROFILE IN ORGANISATION’S INDIA : Coordinating, liaising and networking between insurance companies regarding eligibility, payments, approvals, reconciliation and bachelor thesis other requirements.

Taking approvals from Insurance Companies for Inpatient procedures Responsible for filing and tracking insurance claims and informing patients of their claims status. Process insurance and disability claims in a timely manner. War Photo Essay? Prepares insurance forms and associated correspondences. Dealing with all the famous health insurance companies. Use Case Study Of Railway Reservation System? Rejected claims to be rectified by providing the war photo essay, requirements needed by the insurance company. Collecting deduction and co insurance from insurance patient. Develop good relationship with various insurance companies.

Preparation of IP Insurance Bills. Thesis Arbeit Themen? Taking prior approval for lab investigations and other procedures, in case required as per the agreement with the Insurance companies. Giving clarifications to the concerned person in vietnam Insurance companies regarding the arbeit themen, sent claims. Entertains patients’ queries regarding unpaid balances. Liaise with patients regarding their eligibility and entitlements. Corporate marketing – emplacement of corporate for essay various medical services Coordinating camps, workshops, awareness programs, exhibitions etc. Scares? Internal marketing which includes conducting different programs for employees especially for nurse’s day, special packages for employee referrals. Assists with the development and administration of various departmental programs and prepares reports. Processes invoices and war photo essay other miscellaneous payments for the department. Responds to department inquiries (mail, phone, email) Develop and maintain good working relationships with all relevant local governmental bureaus, agencies and arbeit authorities Interacting with customers, senior-level executives, and all other levels of employees. Provide general administrative support including but not limited to: phones, distributing mail, and preparing expense reports.

Organize and vietnam essay maintain file and records. Media Activities – press release, events etc. Preparing monthly and annual reports Day to day operations Inviting International patients from UAE, Oman, Nigeria etc. for treatment. Communicating with international agencies for referrals of patients. Transportation arrangements for the patients. Providing necessary help for what you essay the patient for their stay, OP consultation, admissions etc. Make the patients aware about the hospital policies and war photo procedures and also providing financial information to the patients. Handling of Corporate, Executive checkups etc. Administering the day to day operations of the department.

Handling insurance related activities. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS in KIMS Hospital: Corporate Tie ups: Tied up with Apollo Tyros, Binani Zinc Limited, Carborundum (CUMI), Cognizant Technologies, UST Global Services, Idea Cellular Limited, State Bank of Travancore, Corporation bank, SUDchemie, Ultratech Cements, Najath School, SCMS College, Aries Telecasting Limited. Ideas To Write An Essay? Insurance Tie ups: Vipul Medcorp TPA Limited, Health India TPA Limited, Max Bhupa General Insurance, AXA Assistance, Starwell Health Management, Family Health Plan TPA Limited, Good Health Plan Limited, Twaniya Insurance, East West Rescue, ICICI Lombard General Insurance, Emeditek TPA Services. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS in Lakeshore:

Corporate tie up: Tied up with Indian Oil Corporation, Air India, RBI, Canara Bank Insurance Tie ups: Vipul Medcorp TPA Limited, Health India TPA Limited, Starwell Health Management. Comprehensive problem solving abilities, organizing and vietnam essay coordinating skills, good verbal and essay being hero written communication skills, ability to deal with people, willingness to work in a team, work under pressure. Husband’s Name : xyz. Date of Birth : 22.2.1982. Marital Status : Married. Passport No : 00000. Visa Status : Husband Visa. Visa Expiry : 21.02.2016. License : UAE Driving License. Hobbies : Reading, Traveling, Hearing Music. Languages Known : Malayalam, English, and Hindi.

International Radiology Center, This resume is a sample for the post of a Hospital Nurse. Nursing is a very famous, respectable and responsible post. Vietnam War Photo? A receptionist requires great speaking skills and study reservation system etiquette to attend to all customers. In this job you should be well aware of the organization and your job Hospital Nurse. While hiring the vietnam, staff for this post mostly Human Resource Manager in a hospital requires multiple qualities in the applicant.

So you are required great experience, exposure along with strong and confident personality. Attach some previous experience along as the HR Manager would want to hero ensure your abilities and capacity as this profession requires too much attentive mind that is able to cop with all the vietnam essay, situations that may occur in a hospital. Images (if possible) and verified references and credits are a big help in theme 2012 this case. A resume Hospital Nurse sample is given below to help you express yourself in an impressive way and to cover all the necessary points required. Tips For Editing Hospital Nurse Resume Sample: All you need is to Ctrl C (copy) the entire text of the resume sample and Ctrl V(paste) it on to your Word document. Having trouble with formatting the text when you Ctrl V (paste)?

Click here to resolve! Add in war photo essay your personal information as per our guidelines just like fill-in-blanks. Adhere the most recent, fresh picture of yours. Enlist your address and available contact information. Enlist you references and soziale themen their contact numbers. Make sure to have the print out on the best quality of paper.

Are you looking for…? Nurse Resume , Male Nurse Resume , Emergency Room Nurse Resume, E-mail Address: xxxxxxx. To be part of an organization that will develop and enhance knowledge and secretarial skills and contribute to the success of the hospital in rendering healthcare services to the people with the best of my abilities. More than 4 year in hospital department and performed receptionist and war photo essay nurse duty. During my career i received bonus and special increment early. Out Patient Department: Receptionist duty in hospital. Filing and retrieving medical records and other paperwork Undertaking General office duties like data entry, scanning, and updating patient records Registering new patients, checking their identification. Assessing their vital signs as well as present complaint and coordinating them with the bachelor thesis arbeit, physician.

Facilitating diagnostic examination and relaying test results with the physician. Maintaining a safe work area, free from hazards and using appropriate infection control procedures Completing necessary documents with regards to patient’ records. Ability to deal with people in a caring, courteous and professional manner. General Ward: (Pediatric, Obstetric, Medical and Private/VIP Patients) Assessing patient’s physical, psycho-social, and emotional needs. Monitoring Patient’s condition and informing physician for vietnam war photo patient’s status and progress. Assisting Physician for conduction of patient’s rounds and examinations. Informing co nurses for any changes on patient’s condition and physician’s order.

Vital Signs taking, monitoring and proper recording. Administering Physician’s ordered medications. Oral medications Topical medications IV medications IM medications SQ medications ID medications Facilitates Laboratory test and Diagnostic Examinations. Scares You Essay? Maintaining Oxygen Inhalation for essay patients care. Facilitating Nebulization, Suctioning and proper ways for effective expectoration Re inserting and system changing Intravenous fluid. Preparing and Transfusing of Blood Products. War Photo? Checking for proper tube placement and soziale themen feeding the patient through Nasogastric Tube. Vietnam War Photo? Ensuring that all dietary requirements are followed by discount code 2012, the patient. Ensuring patient’s for proper personal and war photo protective hygiene.

Facilitating proper Electrocardiography procedure. Proper Wound Dressing Inserting of Indwelling Foley Catheter. Performing Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation for arrested patients. Performing Maternal and thesis code New Born Care. Protecting patient’s privacy and confidentiality.

Ensuring Patient’s chart is always in correct documentation and updated. War Photo Essay? Coordinating patient’s available test results and present status to soziale physicians. Provides patient and family teaching depending on their needs Serve as a resource person for knowledge of medication uses, dosage and vietnam war photo essay possible side effects. Notifies pharmacies of physician’s approved prescriptions; reviews drug samples to essay introductions ensure they have not exceeded the expiration date; labels sample drugs and educates patients of medication administration. Instructing and demonstrating health teachings, home care procedures and follow up checkups. Referring patient to essay other Hospitals for more care and gilgamesh essay being hero management. MYRENE DAVID-UMIPIG, M.D.

OBSTETRICS-GYNECOLOGY CLINIC. McArthur Highway. Capas Tarlac. January 15, 2011 to August 30, 2011. (CLINIC NURSE/ RECEPTIONIST) Assisted the physicians by managing all secretarial work. Ability to maintain work area in neat and vietnam essay orderly manner. Extensive knowledge of medical terminologies. Essay? Handle tasks of organizing and maintaining medical forms and office stationary required for front desk activities. Handling and managing continuous flow of information in the health care centre.

Perform essential clerical tasks like e-mail and data entry (60 wpm). Assisted patients in solving their queries by providing detailed and precise information. Perform the tasks of greeting patients and scheduling appointments. Perform responsibilities of registering patients by essay, following protocols of the bachelor soziale arbeit, organization. Responsible for checking and verifying accuracy of medical record of patients. Central Luzon Doctor’s Hospital Educational Institution. Course: Bachelor of Science in Nursing (Board Passer) Tarlac City, Philippines. Date of Birth : September 05, 1984. Civil status : Single.

Language spoken : English, Filipino. Visa Status : Visit Visa. Nursing Li censure Examination Passer HAAD Examination Passer. Electric Operation Site Engineer Resume Sample. This resume is for the post of Electric Operation Site Engineer. An Electric or Electronic Engineer designs, improves, implements and manipulates electrical instruments and products, and makes them user friendly. He directs and coordinates all the product under construction. In Engineering it is considered to be the most potential job. And it requires a potential resume as well. A good resume explains yourself impressively to vietnam war photo essay the employer, it manifests all your capacities along with your commitment to grow further professionally. Below we have devised such a resume for you to help you guide in making a convincing resume.

Start with your basic information, moving along to your expertise then enlist some verified references as they are going to pose a positive effect on the employer. And finally add some credits/awards/images of your previous experiences to make your resume stand out among others. Tips For Editing Electric Operation Site Engineer Resume Sample: All you need is to Ctrl C (copy) the use case study reservation, entire text of the resume sample and Ctrl V(paste) it on to your Word document. Essay? Having trouble with formatting the text when you Ctrl V (paste)? Click here to resolve!

Add in your personal information as per our guidelines just like fill-in-blanks. Adhere the gilgamesh essay hero, most recent, fresh picture of yours. Enlist your address and available contact information. Essay? Enlist you references and their contact numbers. Gilgamesh Essay Hero? Make sure to have the print out on the best quality of war photo paper. Are you looking for…? Electric Engineer Resume Sample , Civil Engineer Resume Sample. Electric Operation Site Engineer Resume Sample. Visit Visa Dubai, U.A.E. Applied For: Site Engineer/Entry Level Electric Engineer/Electric Engineer/Operation Engineer.

Objective : (Electric Operation Site Engineer) An enthusiastic Professional, who enjoys being part of, as as leading, a successful and use case study of railway productive team, quick to grasp new ideas and concepts, and to develop innovative and creative solutions to problems. I am an Electronics Engineer with 4 years of professionawelll working experience in various reputable organizations in different job roles. Have professional working experience in Telecommunication and Mobile Technology. Worked as Electrical Engineer in Electrical HV/MV/LV installation systems, Power distribution systems and vietnam war photo essay Control panel systems. Worked in Field of Firefighting systems NFPA Standard, CCTV and Access Control systems. Coordinate electrical work with other engineering disciplines.

Testing Electronic components, products, and systems for use in commercial, industrial as well as control and maintenance of instruments. Develop labor and material estimates for what scares projects. Also ensure the health and safety measure during the implementation of vietnam projects. Designation: Operation Site Engineer. Duties and responsibilities: Worked as Electrical Engineer in Electrical HV/MV/LV installation systems, Power distribution systems and Control panel systems. Worked in Field of Firefighting systems NFPA Standard, CCTV, Electric Fencing and Access Control systems. Designed electrical drawings and implemented them precisely with less voltage drop. Coordinate electrical work with other engineering disciplines. Testing Electronic components, products, and systems for use in comparative commercial, industrial as well as control and maintenance of instruments.

Fault Detection and correction of electrical equipment’s and HV/MV/LV cables. Essay? Develop labor and material estimates for use case study reservation system projects. Also ensure the health and safety measurements during the essay, implementation of projects. Organization: EGYPTIAN PAKISTANI TELECOM SERVICES COMPANY (PVT) LTD. Designation: OSE (Operation Site Engineer) Duties and responsibilities: Mobilink Projects (BSS and study of railway OM): Leadership capability to essay mentor, guide and manage teams. Discount Code? Experience in handling with clients across different situations Ability to vietnam war photo essay provide unique and innovative solutions for critical network issues Handling emergency situations.

Incident management and analysis through development of policies and procedures Good interpersonal/communication skills in gilgamesh hero a team based environment Responsible for Operations maintenance of entire network (Mobilink), including BSS, and transmission entities installed in the whole Centre-1 region. Vietnam War Photo? Proactively develop, implement, and use case of railway reservation system communicate effective operational procedures for improvement of network quality to enhance customer satisfaction. Coordination between customer and vietnam essay internal team to ensure the timely deliverance. Send different reports regarding network to customer on regular basis. To manage and control team work load and to update daily progress report.

To resolve the site issues through proper channel, discussion with Operator and to propose the proper solution. Movements of teams on sites and to essay hero give them the proper guideline. Transmission Design with MW Radio Equipment’s (NEC Paso link, V4). Coordination with Operator on Issues Concerning Microwave Design. BTS (Horizon-I, Horizon-II) Motorola BSS Issues rectification. I have good command on NEC and MOTOROLLA BTS, and commissioning software like PNMT MASTER and MERMER. Having good experience on telecom sites Power issues, ATS Panels, Distribution Panels, Gensets (HP20KVa, Perkins27KVa, 30KVa and John Deer 31Kva), overhauling and maintenance. To do preventive maintenance with a team on routine basis for BTS, BSC micro BTS sites. To check battery backup, reporting of the external alarms correctly. The purpose of vietnam essay this type of periodic maintenance is to thesis theme discount check each every equipment at the site to prevent any instantaneous alarms on GSM site to improve the QOS of GSM operator.

Organization: GEPCO (Gujranwala Electric Power Supply Company) Pakistan . Studied the essay, flow of power plant operation and power generation process. Theme 2012? Introduced to the control room operations and PLCs. Acquaintance the vietnam war photo essay, instrumentation department and its operations. PLC SCADA Associate Level Course (Two Weeks) Control System Architecture.

DCS Layers. PLC programming with SCADA. HMI Design. Leadership qualities Sense of thesis discount code organization Good experience in project or team management. Researched and conceived newsletter articles. Produced variety of business materials, including: letters, reports, proposals and forms. Proof read and edited all referenced written materials.

Promoted products and services; generated leads and initiated sales. Established and vietnam war photo improved client communications; maintained ongoing relationships. Coordinated, planned and contributed at trade shows and special events. MS Office. Use Case Reservation System? Windows 9X /XP//Vista/Win 7/ Win 8 MAC operating systems, Internet. BS Electronics Engineering.

COMSATS Institute of Information and essay technology. Activities and ideas an essay on college Interests: Basketball, Football, Cricket, Indoor Games etc. Hiking, Current Affairs, Reading Articles, Social Works. Passport No. 0000000. Languages English, Portuguese, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi. Will be furnished on request. This resume is a sample for the post of Telecom Engineer.

A Telecommunication or Telecom Engineer is a discipline that combines Electric Engineering with telecommunication to bring about progress and development in telecommunication. Today’s world is vietnam essay a tech world. Code 2012? Everything is related to technology in one way or the other. A Telecom Engineer is an example of this. How a resume must be built for this post? A resume is the most important thing for you before coming face to face to an employer.

It must be build in a very careful and precise manner. Below is given an example of such a resume to help you create an impressive and convincing resume. Finally adding verified references and images(if any) of your previous experiences is definitely going to increase the worth of your resume. Tips For Editing Telecom Engineer Resume Sample: All you need is to Ctrl C (copy) the entire text of the vietnam war photo essay, resume sample and Ctrl V(paste) it on comparative to your Word document. Having trouble with formatting the vietnam, text when you Ctrl V (paste)? Click here to resolve! Add in your personal information as per our guidelines just like fill-in-blanks. Adhere the most recent, fresh picture of themen yours. Enlist your address and available contact information. Enlist you references and their contact numbers.

Make sure to have the print out on the best quality of vietnam war photo essay paper. Are you looking for…? Electronic Mechanical Engineer Resume Sample , Electrical Engineer Resume Sample, Email ID :XXXXXXX. To succeed in an environment of growth and theme 2012 excellence and earn a job which provides me job Satisfaction and vietnam essay self development and scares help me achieve personal as well as organization goals.

To seek challenging assignment and vietnam essay responsibility, with an opportunity for growth and ideas an essay on college career advancement as successful achievements. To be involved in vietnam war photo work where I can utilize skill and creatively involved with system that effectively contributes to the growth of organization. To make a sound position in corporate world and work enthusiastically in team to achieve goal of the organization/MNC with devotion and hard work. Bachelor Degree – B. E (Electrical and ideas to write Electronics Engineering) from 2007-2011. Diploma Degree –Diploma in Computer Application (DCA) from 2004-2005. Diploma Degree –Desk Top Publishing (DTP) from essay 2006-2007. Electrical Maintenance Management from 2008-2009. Year : 2012 to study of railway 2014. Position : Electrical/Telecom Engineer. Core Experience of Electrical DC/AC and HVAC Maintenance:

Managing Electrical supply and maintenance operations in GSM field and Telecom Exchange field. Rectify the problem of Electrical panel and war photo essay preventive maintenance routine (Ex. Phase sequence changing, Over voltage production burn, High voltage problem, Main contactor fault, etc. ). Ensuring the surveillance monitors are observed at all times. Thesis Theme Code 2012? Monitoring and controlling all sally port doors that enters into the secured area of the essay, facility. Also, monitoring and controlling all of the sally port doors in the housing units. Core experience of Telecom Engineer: May have to visit sites when needed to solve problems regarding communicating devices on power issues. Will have to inspect and service telecommunication devices in frequent interval of time. Engineers will also have to design and theme code 2012 create devices for telecommunication systems and cooperate with the team members. Develop and write procedures for installation, use, and troubleshooting of communications hardware and software.

CONSIM Info Pvt. Ltd-Property Consultant Management. Year : 2011 April to 2012 March, Position : Executive Customer Service. Core experience of Executive Customer Service: Represents the president by welcoming visitors, reviewing correspondence; arranging company dinners and other corporate functions. Publishes the corporate newsletter by gathering information; preparing and editing articles. Make consistent decisions by advising them of historical precedents; serving as liaison between them and the president. Essay? Completes projects and special assignments by establishing objectives; determining priorities; managing time. Being? Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in vietnam professional organizations.

Specialization in managing Stock and Adjustment Operations. System Operations at senior level contribution Document control and Server Management. Key Skills : MS-office, DOS,Unix,Linux,C,C++,JAVA,Windows 7,Windows 8, Windows OS Typing Speed : 46(WPM) Advance Kills : Server maintenance for large number of computers. Leadership Quality with planning in professional manner Good listener Honesty and Sincerity Punctuality with well designed planning manner. Date of birth : 23 Jan. 1988. Marital Status : Single. Passport No : 00000. Address : Post Box: 5820, Language known : Arabic, English, Hindi, Urdu and Tamil. I hereby declare that the above furnished details are true to the best of my knowledge.

Sincerely, Reference: Senior Power Engineer IT Support Engineer. ETA power Project Bin Hamoodah Group of an essay on college companies.

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The White Paper FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) But I couldn’t find one, so I decided to war photo essay write it myself. I hope these QAs help anyone just getting started in white papers. Or anyone who wants to understand them better. Click any topic to see related questions and of railway system, answers.

White papers past, present, and future. Ask any 10 people this question, and you’ll likely get 12 different answers. Here is the vietnam, best short definition I’ve ever found, after years of thesis looking: A white paper is a persuasive essay that uses facts and logic to promote a certain product, service, or viewpoint . Beyond that, I’ve heard a white paper described as: Clearly none of vietnam war photo essay these exotic definitions do the ideas to write on college, trick.

For some better clues, look at essay, the content and format of these documents: The content of a white paper provides useful information for business people seeking to understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision. The format of a white paper is somewhere between a technical manual and scares you essay, a glossy brochure… between a dry-as-dust academic paper and an annual report. Are there any industry standards for these documents? In a word, no. Anyone can call anything a white paper. And they do.

Today’s “typical” white paper is 6 to 8 pages long, shorter than in past years. But I’ve seen everything from a two-page flyer to a 100-page book called a “white paper.” The typical white paper looks better than a technical manual, but not as slick as a brochure or ad. But some white papers are as colorful as a cereal box. The typical white paper is distributed as a PDF on vietnam, the web. But some are still printed out for sales calls, press kits and trade shows. If there’s no standards, aren’t there at least some conventions?

White paper experts including Gordon Graham have identified these key characteristics for a white paper : A document containing narrative text At least 5-6 pages long Oriented in portrait format (landscape format tends to be for B2B e-books) Educational, practical and useful, not a sales pitch Used before a sale, not after a sale Provides facts, not just opinion Includes an introduction or executive summary. If a document has all these characteristics, it’s probably a white paper. What different types of white papers exist? White papers come in bachelor arbeit themen, many different types, with no accepted system for labeling them precisely. Given this, the majority of white papers fall into war photo, one of these three main flavors: #1. Backgrounders describe the technical features and benefits of a product or service.

#2. Numbered lists provide a light and theme, lively roundup of highlights about essay, some issue. #3. Problem/solutions recommend a new, improved solution for thesis soziale themen a nagging business or technical problem. You can effectively combine two of these flavors: Numbered list + backgrounder Problem/solution + backgrounder.

This yields five main flavors of white papers. You can’t effectively combine all three, because of the different viewpoints of a problem/solution and vietnam war photo, a backgrounder. A problem/solution is like looking at the wide view of a whole industry with a telescope. A backgrounder is like zooming in on gilgamesh, one specific offering with a microscope. It’s very difficult to do both in the same piece. Beyond these, many other terms are commonly used to vietnam war photo describe white papers: Competitive review Evaluator’s guide Executive briefing Market overview Position paper Product briefing Special report. But all these descriptive terms fit under one or another of the three main types, so they’re not as helpful. When is each type of white paper most useful?

Each type is ideas an essay most appropriate for delivering certain information to war photo a certain audience, as shown below. For shorthand, I’ve used “offering” to thesis theme discount 2012 represent any product, service, technology or methodology described in the white paper. For the war photo essay, three main flavors of white papers: #1. Backgrounder : for prospects near the end of the what, buying cycle or to support a product launch for journalists, analysts and vietnam war photo, channel partners. #2.

Numbered list : for anyone interested in a light and lively roundup of highlights about some issue or to spread FUD on what scares you essay, competitors. #3. Problem/solution white paper : for prospects near the start of the buying cycle who are using the Web to research a nagging business or technical problem. Remember that there are no “rules” or universal standards for what makes a white paper… so many people use this label very carelessly. By my definition, a problem/solution white paper contains useful information to help people understand some relatively new, complex or expensive offering they are considering buying for their business. There are many other types of useful information, but I don’t consider them white papers.

For example, Internet marketing guru Perry Marshall names 40+ documents that he considers to be white papers, including: Application guide Cheat sheet Installation guide Manual (?!) Optimizer Pocket guide Troubleshooting guide Tutorial. But notice how many of these items are actually documentation used after a purchase when installing, learning or troubleshooting a system. Those may be useful, but they’re not white papers. To my thinking, a white paper is strictly a pre-sales document used before a purchase. It’s not documentation or support, it’s sales and marketing. White papers and vietnam war photo essay, blog posts: What’s the difference? White papers and blog posts are usually quite simple to bachelor thesis arbeit tell apart. White papers are usually PDF downloads of 3,000 to 5,000 words. A good white paper is based on essay, established facts and logical arguments, like a well-researched article in an industry journal.

A white paper generally takes 4 to 6 weeks of theme intense effort by a group of people. That’s why an effective white paper can be used for one or two years, and then refreshed. Blog posts are usually webpages, much shorter at 500 to 1,000 words. A blog post can be generated in vietnam war photo, a couple of hours. A blog post can be sheer opinion, or even a rant, more like a letter to thesis the editor. Essay! That’s why there are so many blogs: Anyone can shoot off their mouth in a blog. That’s why most blog posts are relevant for only a few months. In a way, blog posts are a good place to test out bachelor arbeit themen your ideas, as they come together. Vietnam Essay! You can gather comments and feedback, and see how your online audience connects with your ideas. Then you can solidify and back up your ideas in a white paper where you can pour more time and effort into the research, writing, design, and what, promotion.

White papers and war photo, brochures: What’s the difference? White papers and brochures are almost complete opposites. Brochures are sales documents intended to bachelor thesis soziale arbeit themen create interest and vietnam war photo, desire. Brochures push “emotional buttons” such as fear, greed, envy or vanity. What! They are generally colorful, flashy and filled with promises. They use the techniques of copywriting and advertising. White papers , on the other hand, are persuasive essays about vietnam war photo essay, a certain product, service, technology or methodology. White papers appeal more to logic through irrefutable facts, iron-clad logic, impeccable statistics and quotes from industry opinion-makers. Essay Introductions! They are generally plain-looking, not flashy and filled with facts. They use the techniques of rhetoric and plain English.

Some companies simply reformat a brochure and war photo essay, call the result a “white paper.” This is a dangerous waste of effort. Most readers become irritated when they discover that a vendor has done this. I have heard people urge vendors to ideas to write an essay on college make their white papers as flashy as brochures. This is not correct. A white paper should be much more dignified, substantial and informative than a brochure. Making it look like a sales piece is the kiss of vietnam essay death for thesis soziale arbeit themen a white paper. White papers and case studies: What’s the difference? White papers sometimes mention case studies for essay evidence of a vendor’s claims. Thesis Theme 2012! But the two are quite different in form and content. Case studies are extended testimonials on how a product or service helped someone in vietnam war photo, the real world.

They are typically between 500 and 1,500 words long, written in what, a journalistic style with many quotes from the actual customer. The classic format for vietnam war photo a case study is Before/After, Then/Now, Problem/Solution: Before we had this terrible problem, then we found this fantastic product, and After we started using it, everything was sweetness and gilgamesh being, light. White papers , on the other hand, are persuasive essays about war photo essay, a certain product, service, technology or methodology. They are generally 2,500 words or more, written in 2012, a somewhat academic style, with no direct quotes from the vendor’s representatives. A white paper may be told in the Problem/Solution format, but rarely in vietnam war photo, the Before/After format. White papers tend to thesis soziale themen be used earlier in the sales cycle, to help prospects visualize a possible solution to a nagging problem.

Case studies tend to be used later in the sales cycle to reassure a prospect that other buyers benefited from the same approach they are considering. White papers and e-books: What’s the vietnam war photo, difference? Remember, we’re not talking about an electronic book intended to be read on an e-reader or smartphone. We’re talking abut e-books used in B2B content marketing. That type of use case study reservation e-book and a white paper can be hard to vietnam tell apart. You can often call the bachelor thesis soziale arbeit themen, same document a white paper or an e-book. A B2B e-book can be just about any length on just about any topic.

Many e-books look more like slide decks than text-driven documents. In fact, some say e-books are just prettied-up white papers turned on their sides. In any case, here are some scenarios when an e-book might work better than a white paper: Your audience is prone to distraction. They may be young, or on essay, the road. An e-book may sound like more fun than a white paper that sounds like a lot of work.

Many competitors publish white papers. If you’re trying to gilgamesh being hero break through the noise of competing white papers, an e-book might sound different enough to be engaging. You could gain more traction by presenting the same content as an vietnam war photo, e-book instead of a white paper. Just remember: The goal is the same. An ideal e-book—just like an ideal white paper—will help your target audience understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision.

If your content does that, you can call it an gilgamesh, e-book, a white paper, or whatever… and your audience will still thank you for it. White papers and war photo essay, press releases: What’s the difference? Press releases are short, factual announcements of interest to an essay a certain audience. War Photo! This format has existed for perhaps 100 years. Until recently, press releases were used to to write an essay on college influence media “gatekeepers” and vietnam essay, gain publicity for their sponsor.

The most effective press releases were recycled by journalists into bachelor soziale, printed articles. Today, press releases are available to anyone on the Web, without the vietnam essay, need for any gatekeeper. A contemporary press release must be highly factual. In fact, there are rules about what a public company can say in a press release. White papers , on thesis discount, the other hand, are persuasive essays about a certain product, service, technology or methodology. Problem/solution white papers have existed for perhaps 50 years and the format has evolved quickly since the turn of the century. While a white paper is sponsored by a company—the same as a press release —white papers are generally much longer than press releases, with more room to present facts and develop arguments.

White papers are sometimes packaged with press releases as a “press kit.” And they are sometimes republished in trade magazines as articles. On the war photo, Web, white papers are available to comparative almost everyone. There are no legal limits on what a company can say in a white paper. But it’s best to take a journalistic approach, backing up every assertion with statistics, facts and quotes from respected source. White papers are read by almost anyone contemplating the purchase of a relatively new, relatively complex, or relatively high-priced product or service for their business. White paper readers can play a number of different roles in business, such as: Corporate executives (decision-makers) Finance executives (financial recommenders) IT managers and staff (technical recommenders) Line-of-business managers (managers) User representatives (users) In-house supporters of the purchase (“champions”)

In larger companies, all these people may sit together on a selection committee that makes a collective decision. In smaller firms, some people may wear several of these hats and meet informally to discuss their purchase. White papers are especially well-read by IT managers . One survey showed that they read a median of essay 30 white papers a year, with some reading more than 50 a year… that’s one a week! As well, business people routinely passes good white papers up and essay introductions, down the chain of essay command, to both their managers and their staff. White paper readers are seeking useful information to comparative introductions help them understand an issue or solve a problem. This often involves learning about the business benefits or technical details of war photo essay a product or service they are considering buying.

A survey of IT managers by Forbes.com and Bitpipe (now TechTarget ) showed that they read white papers for the following reasons: Stay on scares you essay, top of new trends (76%) Get information about products and vendors (69%) Compare products (50%) Help justify buying decisions (42%) Develop a short list of qualified vendors (33%). White papers used to be aimed strictly at IT professionals. Today, many less technical people are involved in big buying decisions. These people are seeking plain-language explanations with clear business benefits, backed up by vietnam essay convincing facts and arguments. People tend to read white papers when they:

Dream of a way around a pressing problem Wonder if anything could solve their problem Look for something to satisfy their wish-list Research a possible purchase Make up a short list of qualified vendors. Executives at the IT portal KnowledgeStorm encourage clients to think of a technology sale in comparative introductions, four phases. 1. Vision : a business person is imagining how to solve a problem. At that point, a high-level white paper focused on business benefits can help them visualize the possibilities of vietnam using a certain offering. 2. Essay! Planning : a prospect is trying to map a set of functional requirements to a certain product.

That’s when a more detailed, technical white paper can help them understand how a given solution would work in their environment. 3. Evaluation : a prospect is actively looking at a set of products from a short list of vendors. The need for white papers has pretty much passed. An Evaluator’s Guide for a complex product might be helpful at vietnam essay, this point. But more often, prospects want the theme discount code, reassurance of vietnam essay seeing case studies from other customers. 4. Thesis Arbeit! Acquisition : a customer is vietnam war photo essay actually purchasing and installing a product. They may need added information to help them do so, but it’s more accurate to call this “documentation” rather than a white paper.

After all, the white paper has already played its role and the sale has already been made. Everything from this point on an essay on college, is after-sales support. Almost everyone working today has more to essay read, more to remember and more to thesis theme discount code 2012 do than they can possibly get to. For example, one study showed that the typical manager has more than 50 hours of work sitting on vietnam essay, their desk at any point. They’re not exactly waiting for use case study of railway system another document to add to the pile?!

No one reads white papers for fun; they read them for war photo essay work. So most people who read white papers do not read the same way they might read a novel, paying attention to every sentence. Instead, they tend to skim, scan and skip… especially if they’re reading off the scares, screen. Don’t you? This means that white papers must be carefully written and designed for business readers with limited time and attention. A wall of vietnam gray text is essay not likely to engage today’s white paper reader. White papers need to war photo essay use visual breakers like sidebars, callouts, headings, lines, boxes, bullets and comparative essay introductions, graphics to direct the war photo essay, attention of scanners and use case of railway, skimmers. These visuals need to point out the key messages of the document in a way that’s easy for today’s busy readers to vietnam follow.

Good news: There’s a whole book devoted to on college this subject. White papers abound in the technology sector, where they are commonly used to explain software and vietnam war photo, hardware products. But there’s no reason why white papers can’t be written about many other B2B offerings. Any B2B vendor selling anything relatively new, relatively complex or relatively expensive could likely benefit from a white paper. This includes companies in you essay, sectors like these: Computer peripherals and vietnam, user interfaces Medical, test, or communication equipment Technical or scientific services Consulting. This adds up to perhaps half a million potential vendors in an essay on college, the English-speaking world that could benefit from white papers. Vendors of any relatively familiar, simple and vietnam war photo essay, inexpensive B2C products don’t often publish white papers, since there is little need for study reservation them.

After all, most consumers don’t want to read a 10-page document before they buy something. There may be exceptions—especially in energy and health care—where consumers may have to vietnam war photo essay make significant decisions. Why do companies produce white papers? In general, vendors publish white papers for two main reasons: either to gather leads, or to stake out a position as a leader in gilgamesh essay, their market space. According to one study, vendors publish white papers for all these reasons: Gather leads for the sales force Educate potential customers Influence a selection committee Educate the sales force or channel partners Educate the vietnam, media Send to a trade publication or website Redefine a market space Build credibility or mind share Keep up with competitors that have white papers. On a strategic level, white papers fit into the widespread trend of “ content marketing.” This model acknowledges that skeptical prospects are hungry for a vendor who will serve as a trusted advisor, not just a peddler of their wares. A white paper can serve this purpose remarkably well.

Remember, the most effective white papers provide useful information to essay hero help a reader understand an issue or solve a problem… not just background about a product. Where do white papers fit in the sales cycle? The longer the sales cycle–aka the vietnam, customer journey–the more likely white papers are part of it. White papers are used early in the sales cycle, before the prospect makes a purchase. These can be called the “Vision” or “Planning” stages of the buying process, or the essay introductions, “Research” or “Selection” tasks of the Universal Tasks. After making a purchase, the buyer has little need for white papers. At this point, the customer needs documentation, training and essay, technical support, not white papers. Which type of white paper should your firm create? If you are creating a white paper, but aren’t sure which flavor is use case reservation system best, you can narrow down the list with three straightforward questions. #1: What is the purpose of this paper? Generate leads Attract attention Nurture prospects through a complex sale Cast FUD on vietnam, competitors Influence a selection committee.

The best flavor to generate leads at ideas to write, the top of the funnel is a problem/solution or a numbered list+problem/solution. In general, the best flavor to vietnam war photo essay attract attention, cast Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD) on competitors, or nurture a prospect through a complex sale is a numbered list. The best flavor to influence a selection committee at the bottom of the funnel is what a backgrounder. #2: When will this white paper be used? Early in war photo essay, the sales cycle, your white paper can be more high-level and general. Later on, your white paper should be more detailed and specific. #3: Who is the scares, audience? What do they want? IT people generally want to see technical details. They will tolerate longer papers with modest production values.

In fact, a slick and colorful format tends to essay make them suspicious. Executives want to ideas an essay on college see bottom-line benefits summed up in a page or two. They want to war photo essay hear about gilgamesh essay being hero, lower costs, better sales, higher profits or improved customer service. Vietnam! Executives expect polished production, with clear graphics they can understand at a glance. Managers want to hear about streamlined workflow and bachelor thesis themen, labor savings. They are keen to see how a new system would affect their area and their people. User reps want to hear about ease-of-use, training and support. They can be more or less technical, but they will likely be detail-oriented. War Photo Essay! Users are not often a significant audience for white papers. But if a user rep is involved in a selection committee, you need to address their concerns at comparative, some point. A mixed audience or selection committee may want to hear everything touched on above.

In this case, you may need several white papers, each with a different flavor and essay, each with content geared to a somewhat different audience. There are several costs related to producing a white paper: Research, writing and editing Illustration and design Translation, if applicable Printing, if applicable Promotion. Each of these costs can be outsourced, or handled in-house. In 2013, extensive research for my book White Papers For Dummies showed that the average fee for a text-only white paper was $4,200.

Most B2B marketers count on spending $5000 to $7,000 for essay being hero the text, and vietnam war photo, another $1,500 for design and graphics. Translating and promoting are further costs. And there are “soft costs” in essay being hero, terms of the time it takes your subject matter experts to answer interview questions and e-mails and to review drafts. All this to say, a white paper is a significant project in any marketing budget. Trying to do a white paper on war photo, a tiny budget will not yield best results. After working on thesis soziale arbeit, 258 white papers, in my experience it takes 6 to 8 weeks to get from the first planning interview to an approved white paper draft.

And it can take longer if people travel a lot or take their time with reviews. Illustration and design take an additional week or two. Translations, if required, take more time. And then the promotions begin and run for vietnam war photo essay many weeks or months. The good news is that a vendor can often continue to use the same white paper for to write an essay on college years. This long life helps to war photo essay achieve a very positive return on essay hero, the investment in vietnam, a white paper. Simply writing a good white paper is not enough. Tucking it away on a website is not enough. To earn an acceptable ROI, a vendor must actively promote a white paper in many ways.

The most popular ways to promote a white paper include: Post it to numerous websites Feature it prominently on home pages Send e-mails about gilgamesh essay being, it Mention it in e-mail sig lines Tweet about it on Twitter Extract ideas and vietnam, create blog posts from them Create a press release about it Mention it in newsletters, e-zines and blogs Give it to prospects on sales calls Give it to prospects at trade shows Pay a third-party service to to write an essay on college syndicate it. In fact, the best way to promote a white paper is to handle it as a mini-product launch . Do everything you would do to launch a new product, and your white paper will be on vietnam essay, the road to success. The more effort you invest in promoting a white paper, the more likely it will succeed. What kind of companies need white papers? Remember, a white paper is thesis soziale a pre-sales document intended to attract prospects or explain an offering. Any B2B vendor selling anything relatively new, relatively complex or relatively costly could likely benefit from vietnam war photo essay a white paper. This includes companies in comparative essay introductions, sectors like: Enterprise software Computer hardware and peripherals Medical, test, or communication equipment Technical or scientific services Consulting. This adds up to essay perhaps half a million potential vendors in the English-speaking world that could benefit from gilgamesh being hero white papers. Vendors of vietnam essay any relatively familiar, simple and inexpensive B2C products don’t often publish white papers, since there is little need for them.

After all, most consumers don’t want to read a 10-page document before they buy something. There may be exceptions—especially in energy and health care—where consumers may have to make significant decisions. How hard is it to write a white paper? Writing your very first white paper for study of railway a company you don’t know well, in vietnam essay, an industry you’ve never written about, can be quite a challenge. Writing your fifth white paper for a long-term client in an industry you know is not so difficult. Most writers feel that the first white paper they ever wrote was quite difficult. And many writers who have done fewer than 10 white papers still find it difficult. If you understand the material and work well with others, writing a white paper can be smooth and enjoyable. All in ideas an essay, all, writing a white paper is no harder than writing a major magazine article of several thousand words.

But if you’ve never done that before, it may be very difficult indeed. How long does it take to write a white paper? According to the White Paper Writer Industry Report which surveyed 600+ writers in vietnam, 2007, the to write an essay, typical white paper takes between 24 and 50 hours to complete. That means one to two weeks full-time should be enough to complete a white paper… if everything falls into vietnam, place. Like any corporate writing project, you must allow time for comparative interviews, research, outlining, drafting and vietnam, perhaps coming up with diagrams. A client will expect a few progress reports. And you will have to incorporate their comments into your drafts. If you manage this process well, writing a white paper can be smooth and thesis theme discount 2012, efficient.

If not, it can turn into essay, a never-ending project that drags on and on essay hero, and on and on and on war photo essay, and on… The more experience a white paper writer has, the comparative essay introductions, faster they tend to work. And freelancers tend to produce faster than in-house or non-professional writers. How much can you charge to write one? In 20113, extensive research for war photo essay my book White Papers For Dummies showed that the average fee for a text-only white paper was $4,200.

Most B2B marketers expect to pay between $5,000 and $7,000 for an experienced white paper writer. Obviously, if you have specialized knowledge about a niche market, you can charge more than a generalist who will need more time and thesis discount 2012, ask more questions to get up to speed. And the more white papers you have written, the vietnam war photo, more you can generally charge. What main problems do white paper writers encounter? Among other problems, white paper writers often report difficulties with: Time management Lack of what clear feedback Changes in direction Getting approvals.

And an inexperienced designer can destroy the readability of an otherwise strong white paper. Successful white paper writers sooner or later devise ways to deal with these issues. The most effective strategy is to war photo essay head off these problems before they happen, by planning and managing a white paper to yield the best possible results. Here are some quick tips: 1. Round up approvals from all stakeholders early on. 2. Submit short deliverables for gilgamesh essay discussion , like a creative brief or a one-page outline, before you start writing a 10-page document. 3. Vietnam! Get your client or company to make a tangible commitment to completing a white paper. For example, freelance writers can get a partial payment in advance; in-house writers can get an okay to forego other duties writing the document. 4. Of Railway System! Work closely with the designer and make sure they understand the war photo essay, white paper format. How can you learn more about white papers? You’re in the right place; this White Paper FAQ is an essay, excellent place to start.

This website provides 100+ articles on every aspects of writing white papers. You’re welcome to explore them all. After that, to vietnam essay take part in a forum where white paper writers post and answer related questions, visit my LinkedIn group, called Get More From Your White Papers . This group is by theme code 2012 request only and vietnam, sticks strictly to white papers. Any off-topic discussions (such as “where do I find clients?” or “here’s the best marketing automation software for themen you” are quickly deleted.) And of vietnam war photo course, you could always get my book, White Papers For Dummies . We get this question all the bachelor thesis soziale, time and vietnam war photo, while there’s no quick answer, here are some pointers that might help: T ake stock of every area you’ve written about over the years Then generalize that knowledge into the vertical markets it touches and the horizontal business functions it involves. Create a persona of your ideal client. What! Expect to vietnam essay spend 40 hours a week either writing or working on your marketing. Use the phone , not e-mail to contact prospects. Show your ideal client what you can do for them—and if you have to, do it for scares free the vietnam war photo, first time.

Keep a swipe file of examples and use it to inspire you and your clients. Be passionate about what you do. Then create value for use case of railway reservation system others. Other things you can do are build a web presence and create a “ buzz piece ”—a white paper of your own to attract leads. Then, once you start writing white papers, publish good samples and testimonials on your website. Some final tips: Never stop marketing and never say you’re too busy to vietnam war photo essay do marketing. And keep doing whatever works for to write an essay you. I’ve tracked back the earliest ancestors of the white paper to UK government reports from the late 19th century.

This term “white paper” arose early in vietnam essay, the 20th century in Great Britain. It was used to distinguish shorter government briefs and position papers with white covers from longer reports and policy books with blue covers. I have located white papers from the UK dating back to ideas to write on college the late 1890s. I am still searching for vietnam the earliest one on file in thesis soziale themen, the UK government archives. One of the earliest white papers many people point to is the so-called Churchill White Paper from 1922. A few months after this was published, Britain apparently broke every promise in vietnam, it. Just like today, not all white papers speak the reservation, truth?! White papers were often used in science and medicine during WWII, the 1950s and 60s.

With the vietnam war photo, rise of the PC in the 80s, white papers started to become extremely popular in scares you essay, the IT industry. And in the 90s, the vietnam war photo essay, Web provided an inexpensive distribution channel that sparked today’s ongoing explosion of white papers. One thing’s for sure: The number of white papers is growing exponentially. In 2002, I ran a Google search for the phrase “white papers” that yielded 2.8 million hits. A decade later, in 2012, the same search got 39.5 million hits—14 times as many. The Web is awash in comparative essay introductions, documents called “white papers.” And these have been become a standard part of the marketing toolkit in some sectors. That’s because truly effective white papers are highly read and passed on from person to person. They have a major impact on buying decisions for billions of dollars worth of vietnam war photo products and bachelor soziale arbeit themen, services every year. Yet this label is applied indiscriminately to vietnam many documents that are not problem/solution white papers. Too many are nothing but thinly veiled sales pitches.

For this reason, the bachelor soziale arbeit themen, term “white paper” is becoming devalued. It may be better to vietnam essay find a more specific name for some audiences, such as: Executive briefing Guide Handbook Research report ROI calculator Special report Technology backgrounder. Where are white papers going in the future? For the being, near future, white papers will continue to be very popular with marketers and prospects. Over the longer term, many new formats for delivering information are being explored. For the vietnam, kind of content usually included in a white paper, these new formats include:

slide decks and presentations audio (podcasts) video (“explainer videos” or recorded webinars). Others mediums on the horizon, including 3D immersive experiences and virtual trade shows. Although these formats can offer a more engaging experience for what scares you essay certain audiences, they require higher budgets and different production methods. And it’s not useful to war photo essay call these “white papers” since they are not delivered as text on paper. Those who call some other medium a “white paper” are likely trying to soziale themen trade off the popularity and vietnam essay, impact of these documents. If you have any questions about white papers not answered here, or you find an answer isn’t clear, please e-mail Gordon@ThatWhitePaperGuy.com. Need a Great White Paper?

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Vietnam war photo essay

Amazing Grace The Movie Essays and Research Papers. ? Amazing Grace “When people speak of great men, they think of vietnam war photo men like Napoleon – men of violence. Rarely do they think of . peaceful men. But contrast the reception they will receive when they return home from their battles. Napoleon will arrive in pomp and in power, a man who’s achieved the very summit of earthly ambition. And yet his dreams will be haunted by the oppressions of war.

William Wilberforce, however, will return to his family, lay his head on his pillow and to write an essay, remember: the slave trade. War Photo Essay. Abolitionism , African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 865 Words | 3 Pages. Roosevelt College Cubao Highschool Department Analysis of the Novel Entitled: Amazing Grace By: Tara FT Sering . (Requirement for English) Moderator: Sir Jayson Seel Maravilla Critic: Katrina Tan (Section Molave second year student) TABLE OF CONTENTS A. Analysis: I. Background of the novel------------------------------------------------------ II. Author’s Background---------------------------------------------------------- III. Synopsis-------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Amazing Grace , Best Friend of Charleston , Love 2116 Words | 7 Pages. “The Amazing Grace ” The Amazing grace is a good book to read. By my standards is kind of violent . and crazy. Within the next few pages here I intend to address two issues.

First I will try to give a personal review of code 2012 what I saw this book to war photo essay, hold, and second I will try explaining the reverence which this book has to the field of Public Administration. First try to picture children in a slum where the squalor in their homes is gilgamesh essay just as bad as that which is in the streets. Where prostitution is rampant. Amazing Grace , John Newton , Mahalia Jackson 1135 Words | 3 Pages. AMAZING GRACE D G D Amazing . War Photo Essay. Grace , how sweet the gilgamesh essay being hero sound, A7 That saved a wretch like me. D G D I once was lost, but now im found, A7 D Was blind, but now I see. D G D Twas grace that thought my heart to.

Amazing Grace , Christian hymns , English-language films 336 Words | 3 Pages. “ Amazing Grace ” “ Amazing Grace ” is not a good movie —it is a great . movie . From time to time, films on History can be lengthy and tedious, but that sure is not the case in this fascinating movie about the famous abolitionist William Wilberforce, who was responsible for steering anti-slave trade legislation through the British parliament. Contrary to what its title suggests, “ Amazing Grace ” isn’t really about the war photo essay inauguration of the Christian hymn. Set in the 18th century England, it focuses on William’s. Abolitionism , African slave trade , Amazing Grace 1326 Words | 4 Pages. What Scares You Essay. I chose to discuss the poem “ Amazing Grace ” by John Newton. I not only love this as a poem, but love to vietnam, sing it as . Study Reservation. a hymn. Vietnam. Amazing Grace was written by John Newton and published in 1779 (Pam, G., 2007, February 3). The tone of this poem is bachelor thesis arbeit themen one that kind of shows how John Newton went from a lost soul, sinner, to one that believes and lives to honor God. War Photo Essay. “In a new biography of John Newton, William E. Phipps argues that Newton's Amazing Grace was an appropriate reflection on his conversion.

Amazing Grace , Debut albums , Hymn 752 Words | 3 Pages. The Analysis – Amazing Grace Kiel Carino ENG 125 Professor Olabisi Adenekan October 29, 2012 . Use Case Study Of Railway. The Analysis – Amazing Grace The poetry “ Amazing Grace ” by John Newton is one of the vietnam essay most famous poems ever written and composed. Ideas To Write An Essay On College. “ Amazing Grace ” has been particularly influential and has affected lives since it was written. Vietnam War Photo Essay. The reasons why “ Amazing Grace ” is influential are for the same reasons why I found this poem very interesting and gilgamesh, engaging. Amazing Grace , John Newton , Literature 746 Words | 3 Pages. reading Jonathan Kozol’s Amazing Grace , two main topics stood out to me. The first topic that stood out to me was power and the . Essay. affects of power. The second topic that stood out to me was the major socio-economic class differences that exist between the rich and the poor. Using the course reading from essay, Miller and the two course readings from Mantsios, I will further analyze and examine these two topics from Kozol’s Amazing Grace . Essay. To begin, let’s see how Kozol’s Amazing Grace relates to Jean Baker. Gilgamesh Being Hero. Mass media , News media , Poverty 1227 Words | 4 Pages. Amazing Grace Movie Response Wilberforce stays with cousin Henry to get better from sickness. Wilberforce is a . Member of Parliament. His cousin Henry and Hannah, his wife, try to essay, set him up with a girl.

Wilberforce is fighting against the slave trade, trying to on college, abolish it. Wilberforce says God has found him. He has a political career and would rather spend time with nature. William Pitt is vietnam essay going to try and be Prime Minister and ultimately does. Pitt asks Wilberforce to essay, join him. A group. African slave trade , Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 438 Words | 2 Pages. children in Jonathan Kozol's Amazing Grace . Who defines them as 'other'? How? What makes them feel like 'nobodies'? What makes . them feel like 'somebodies'?

What is the role of religion in this daily struggle for human dignity? Drugs, violence, prostitution, pollution, infestation, and sickness of all kinds are present in South Bronx, New York. Unfortunately, children are surrounded and involved in essay, all these problems and more. Scares. In Jonathan Kozol’s novel Amazing Grace , an war photo essay evil reality full of thesis soziale arbeit racial. Amazing Grace , Discrimination , Ghetto 809 Words | 3 Pages. What's so Amazing About Grace Book Report. Cameron Peterson Mr. Oswald Romans Period 4 11 January 2012 What’s So Amazing about Grace ? Book Report What’s So . Amazing about Grace ? is a book written by Philip Yancey. War Photo. It begins with a twisted story of a prostitute living on the streets. She is comparative essay introductions unable to feed her two-year old child and has to vietnam war photo essay, find another way to earn money. She could not think of any other alternatives and began selling her child out for prostitution.

She could make much more money this way than she could in one night. The. Amazing Grace , Gift , Grace 752 Words | 3 Pages. accepted. Amazing Grace is a hymn that is sung in many religious institutions. It is one of the theme discount 2012 most adored and popular African . American spirituals. The lyrics uphold one's place in this world and the importance of faith to carry on in the face of trials and tribulations, a faith that leads one to essay, heaven: Amazing grace ! How sweet the sound that saved a wretch likes me. I once was lost and thesis arbeit themen, now am found was blind but now I see. Through many dangers, toils, and war photo, snares I have already come; 'Tis grace hath. Amazing Grace , Cycle of poverty , Extreme poverty 1879 Words | 5 Pages. ?J. Walcott IDIS 205 Evan Kroon 3/20/14 The theme that stuck out most to thesis code 2012, me in Kozol’s Amazing . Grace was the theme of oppression. Merriam-Webster defines oppression as, “unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power” or “a sense of being weighed down in body or mind.” There seemed to be so many things oppressing the war photo essay people that Kozol writes about.

Things like: the healthcare system, the education system, lawmakers, their surroundings, and even their race is. Oppression , Poverty , Social structure 964 Words | 4 Pages. Amazing Grace In the movie Amazing Grace was a horrible yet completely realistic . conditions of the most poor, rundown neighborhoods and districts in New York City. During the 18th century millions of men, woman and children were taken from being hero, their homes in Africa and sold into slavery. Vietnam. Few survived the slave trade was wrong, and to comparative, find one who had the war photo essay courage to stand-up against it seemed impossible. Humanity needed a hero, someone who could establish equally. The movie Amazing Grace tells the what scares account. Amazing Grace , Atlantic slave trade , Charles James Fox 588 Words | 2 Pages. Omar Chaoura Bourouh Socamp;201 DATE @ d MMMM yyyy 24 October 2014 Amazing Grace , Chapters 3 and vietnam war photo, 4 3117215379222SOUTH . BRONX, NEW YORK - OCTOBER 2: Housing projects tower over the torn streets of Mott Haven October 2, 2009 in South Bronx, New York City. Thesis Soziale. SOUTH BRONX, NEW YORK - OCTOBER 2: Housing projects tower over the torn streets of Mott Haven October 2, 2009 in South Bronx, New York City. War Photo. I can honestly say that I believe that some classes and subjects change your life?

Shouldn’t they. Affordable housing , Amazing Grace , Manhattan 890 Words | 2 Pages. Review of the Amazing Spider-Man Movie. The Amazing Spider-Man Review I have always enjoyed action films. I would state that this fact does make me somewhat biased for this review. Thesis Code 2012. . Fictional characters that are super heroes only made them better for me. I went into essay this movie knowing it was going to ideas on college, be one that I would enjoy. This year has had a few different super hero films such as The Avengers and The Dark Knight Rises. The Avengers released May 4th, 2012, was a box office hit, topping the charts for vietnam essay weeks. The Amazing Spider-Man.

Harry Osborn , Marvel Comics , Mary Jane Watson 1198 Words | 3 Pages. BSEDSS 2-1N Title Of The Book: AMAZING GRACE Author: Tara FT Sering I:BACKGROUND OF THE . AUTHOR: Tara FT Sering is the author of five books published in the Philippines.She is bachelor soziale arbeit currently editing an art magazine Contemporary Art Philippines in essay, Manila and is working on a new book.( Amazing Grace pp.194)Almost Married:A novel about ideas Love, Longing,and last Hurrahs, Between Dinner and the Morning After, Amazing Grace , Reconnaissance, and vietnam, Getting Better. II:SUMMARY. Amazing Grace , Fiction , John Newton 669 Words | 2 Pages. Film Review Amazing Grace In the 18th century millions of essay men, women and children were taken from their homes in Africa and . sold into slavery.

Few survived the slave ships, and even fewer lived through their slave labors. Some people thought the slave trade was wrong, but to find someone who had the courage to stand-up to vietnam war photo, make a stop was hard. Being. “ Amazing Grace ”, is a movie based on vietnam essay a true story. Written by Steven Knight and directed by Michael Apted, it is about William Wilberforce and his quest. African slave trade , Amazing Grace , Atlantic slave trade 600 Words | 2 Pages. The movie Amazing Grace tells the gilgamesh essay enthralling story of the essay life of William Wilberforce, an enthusiastic . abolitionist. His lifelong struggle to you essay, end British slave trade inspired the hymn that most everyone is familiar with.

Driven by the belief that God’s grace is sufficient for anyone to be saved, Wilberforce devotes his life to a noble cause with the assurance that grace will “lead us home” in essay, the end as is soziale written in the hymn. The characters and the universal, hope-inspiring themes create an exciting. Abolitionism , Anti-Slavery Society , Atlantic slave trade 490 Words | 2 Pages. ?Running head: AMAZING GRACE Amazing Grace Gloria J. Winters . Grand Canyon University Jesus and His Interpreters February 13, 2011 Amazing Grace The purpose of war photo this essay is to reflect on and discuss three themes from being, Paul’s Epistles that are of significance in my personal life. This essay will also discuss in particular, the Pauline theme carried throughout the war photo essay epistles, and what scares, will describe their impact. Vietnam War Photo. Christian terms , Christianity , Epistle to thesis theme discount code, Philemon 1659 Words | 9 Pages. Andrew Hernandez Professor McKee REL2000 01 October. 2012 Critique of Amish Grace Amish Grace , directed by Gregg Champion, . is war photo a religious movie about a grieving Amish mother who struggles to forgive the wife of use case study a gunman who killed her daughter and four other young girls in their schoolhouse.

After the shooting, many remained true to their traditional belief to practice forgiveness, expect for Ida Graber, who is upset with God and her husband for war photo essay offering forgiveness so quickly. Burdened by. Amish , Amish school shooting , Faith 1290 Words | 4 Pages. Study Of Railway. The poem I chose was “ Amazing Grace ” by John Newton. John Newton was born in London, July 24, 1725 and died December 21, 1807. He . was an Anglican priest and hymn writer, advocating the Christianity view of vietnam war photo redemptive forgiveness. He wrote “ Amazing Grace ” as an element of that prospect (Clugston, 2010). “ Amazing Grace ” is one of the introductions most famous poems ever written and composed.

This poem is also a hymn that speaks too many who is looking for salvation, forgiveness, grace and faith. This form of poetry. Amazing Grace , Hymn , John Newton 583 Words | 2 Pages. “ Amazing Grace ” by John Newton “ Amazing Grace ” is a hymn that speaks to the heart and soul of . many who are looking for faith, forgiveness, redemption, salvation, and grace . John Newton is able to stir the war photo essay soul with an emotional connection relating salvation. As a hymnist, this form of the poetry is categorized as narrative poetry because it tells a story that is bachelor thesis soziale themen sung about salvation, whereby he uses figure of speech to express to create a distinctive and imaginative effect, and has drawn upon. Amazing Grace , Christian terms , God 573 Words | 2 Pages. Vietnam. Amazing Grace In the documentary-style book Amazing Grace , . Jonathan Kozol writes about the realities of study system living in Mott Haven, one of the war photo essay South Bronx poorest neighborhoods. His goal is to inform readers of the realities of thesis soziale children living in a slum and war photo essay, the unfairness of it all. The population of 600,000 live in the South Bronx of New York City and thesis soziale arbeit themen, 43,000 make up Washington Heights and Harlem which is separated by a narrow river, make up one of the most racially. African American , Amazing Grace , Neighborhoods in the Bronx 512 Words | 2 Pages. Movie Critique ENG 225 February 18th, 2013 Film Critique The movie Bruce Almighty starring Jim Carrey, Jennifer Aniston, . Steve Carell and Morgan Freeman is considered a comedy, a drama and vietnam war photo essay, a fantasy movie in gilgamesh being hero, terms of genre but most prominently, a comedy. Bruce Almighty could be viewed several times and still be enjoyed.

Bruce Almighty is a funny movie yet with the drama of war photo essay a couple dealing with some issues is being hero also explored. This movie is for everyone. The movie Bruce Almighty is essay directed by. Bruce Almighty , Evan Almighty , Jennifer Aniston 2779 Words | 7 Pages. Reservation. The film ‘ Amazing Grace ’ follows the quest of William (Wilber) Wilberforce to abolish slavery in the UK. He was a member in essay, the . House of Commons and his friend William Pitt became the Prime Minister. On Wilber’s endeavour he introduced a bill with the help of Pitt (who was also a strong believer of the movement, which is one of the factors that made them such close friends) and a group of bachelor soziale arbeit themen anti-slavery activists which included Equiano, an ex-slave who was of African descent, and vietnam war photo essay, Thomas Clarkson, a. Abolitionism , Amazing Grace , American Civil War 695 Words | 2 Pages. Essay. A DESCRIPTION OF GRACE By Emmanuel O. Obiorah Jos, Plateau State 27th March, 2013 GRACE . INTRODUCTION The word ‘ Grace ’ is not a new word to essay, most religious circles.

Among Christians, such adjectives like amazing , extravagant, divine and awesome have been used to qualify the word grace with each depicting its importance to the Christian faith. Use Case Of Railway Reservation. Our concern in this work is to describe and analyze this word- Grace for a better, richer and more fulfilling understanding. Christianity , God , God in Christianity 2625 Words | 7 Pages. Amazing Grace , by vietnam, Jonathan Kozol, is bachelor themen about the author’s interviews with, and thoughts about, some of the poorest people who live . in the poorest sections of essay New York. The facts stated in Amazing Grace startled me with the prevalence and desperation of the poverty situation in areas like the South Bronx and Mott Haven. These are areas where there are hundreds of thousands of bachelor thesis soziale arbeit themen people living in broken, crowded, and vietnam essay, rundown apartment buildings, “That,” says Kozol, “most people would not even kennel their. Amazing Grace , Cycle of poverty , Household income in ideas to write an essay, the United States 591 Words | 2 Pages. War Photo Essay. Early life and letters of paul | Paul on Grace | By Grace we are Saved | | | 8/7/2012 | This research paper . will discuss Paul and his reflections on arbeit grace . | Abstract/Introduction: The purpose for this paper is to provide historical background on war photo Paul and study of railway reservation system, grace . Vietnam War Photo Essay. I will also provide how it is applied to modern times, how it has changed my life as well as my learning goals from this paper on Paul and grace . Paul embraced God’s grace after his conversion and call and informed. Christianity , Epistle to the Romans , Gospel 1736 Words | 5 Pages. part in creating the mood.

Music plays different types of moods. Like when I hear the song amazing grace is a sad song because . it makes you think of past love ones. To Write. When you hear the song turn down for what it makes you want to dance around and feel happy. Like I was at a party with friends and we turned turn down for wat we dance crazy. And At my grandfathers funeral they put on aa song amazing grace . Vietnam War Photo Essay. . Amazing Grace , Critical thinking , Music 459 Words | 2 Pages. Daddy Grace : A Celebrity Preacher and His House of Prayer. Reservation System. By Marie W. Dallam. (New York: New York University Press, 2007. viii, 263 pp. . $35.00, ISBN 978-0-8147-2010-3.) The book Daddy Grace : Celebrity Preacher and His House of Prayer was a very interesting book full of vietnam essay facts and stories. The author Marie W. Dallam wrote the book with great emphasis on certain parts of the story that she wanted to tell. She began her book out by describing the history of the island that “Daddy Grace ” was a native. Amazing Grace , Cape Verde , Charles 1634 Words | 4 Pages. Essay. Movie Analysis- Amazing Spiderman There are many versions of Spiderman, but “ Amazing Spider-man” is the best . version ever.

The graphic works, the music, and the plot are amazing like the movie title. Essay. The Amazing spider-man is not connected to the previous Spiderman movie . Study Reservation System. One online film critic stated that there is war photo a silent war ongoing right now between two of the big comic book flicks hit theaters in July of 2012: Warner Bros.’ The Dark knight Rises and Sony’s The Amazing Spider-Man (Sandy Schaefer). Daily Bugle , Green Goblin , Harry Osborn 1510 Words | 4 Pages. done with it in two days because I simply could not put it down. I had a lot of people tell me how amazing this book was and how I would love . it, so I tried it out. I thanked all of the people that recommended it to me whenever I was finished, and now I am recommending it to essay being hero, you. Hopefully when you get done with it, you come to vietnam war photo essay, the same conclusion that I did. Use Case Study. This book would make one amazing movie . Here is vietnam essay how the book basically goes down.

There is a girl that is slowly dying of gilgamesh cancer, and one. 20th Century Fox , Clint Eastwood 1770 Words | 3 Pages. the hypocritical relationship with people. He abandoned his old car, burned cash, and started on vietnam his exploration on foot. “I don’t need money. Make people . caution. Rather than love, than money, than faith, than fame, than fairness, give me truth.”( Movie ). During that time, he felt confused. Although seemed to understand, yet just only half-comprehended Thoreau’s poetry, one of the books he brought with hin during his journey. As Thoreau wrote in bachelor thesis soziale, his book Walden, “I went to the woods because I whished. War Photo. Christopher McCandless , Civil disobedience , Emotion 1042 Words | 3 Pages. As part of the summer reading assignment this year, I read the book Amazing Grace by thesis soziale, Jonathan Kozol. In this documentary-style . book, he told about the horrible yet completely realistic conditions of the war photo essay most poor, rundown neighborhoods and districts in New York City. Kozol wrote the book for ideas to write on college the purpose of telling the stories of the children who lived in these parts of the city.

He dedicated his work to those children and it was his goal to inform readers that slums were in fact in existence and. Ghetto , Mayor of New York City , Morality 811 Words | 2 Pages. Delilah Whilst watching the film, it becomes extremely hard to make a decision between whether making a wordless film or attracting numerous audiences . is a bigger accomplishment. It is amazing that the audience fails to realize the film’s male protagonist during the entire movie . The setting of the movie is in the arid Aboriginal outback. Being a motion picture, Samson and war photo, Delilah is remarkably restrained, but with a rich impact (Sluis, 2010).

In the use case study of railway system opening scenes Warwick Thornton, the vietnam first-time. Comparative Essay. Audience , Audience theory , Delilah 929 Words | 3 Pages. Armageddon: World and Grace Stamper. Ramirez Date: November 27, 2013 What do you understand about the war photo title? The title was Armageddon meaning “it is the being hero end of the world, the essay war . between good and evil, and what, it is something that ends”. Armageddon is the main focus of the movie or film that we watched. Science concept: The science concept of the film talks about vietnam war photo essay space, like it strike a topic anout astronomy. It also tackled about the theme code 2012 impact of asteroids who falls in earth and vietnam war photo, the speed, time and also the gravity. Please. Asteroid , Earth , Earth's magnetic field 873 Words | 3 Pages. Even though you might not see it at first, The Movie Star seems to do a lot to capture its readers from more then what they might initially . think.

No matter what Simmons is essay introductions saying by his sport analogies, movie stats or bold statements about essay reader’s favorite actors, he seems to be able to easily intrigue you. Simmons clearly seems to know what his audience, from the scares people that fallow him from vietnam, his fame in ideas to write, the sports world or if it’s the vietnam war photo essay more pop-culture crowd enjoying the Grantland website. Reading. Actor , Celebrity , Character actor 1010 Words | 3 Pages. Sunflower 5.Rough Cut (No Mercy for the Rude, is introductions a nice movie but I did'nt include it here due to some explicit scenes in the . movie not suitable for the young audience although the storyline is good) The Best of the Best of Romance Movies 1. The Classic- *Unforgettable 2. A Moment to Remember- *Tearjerker 3.Temptation of Wolves- * Amazing 4.Daddy Long Legs- *Inspirational 5.Windstruck- *mixed emotions 6.My Girl and I- *heartwarming 7.Sad Movie - *lot of tissues 8. Love Phobia- *heart pounding . 2000s romantic comedy films , Actor , English-language films 552 Words | 3 Pages. Chapel: Bible and Amen Amazing Grace. Closing Prayer: Dedication and Commitment Benediction Response: Amen, Amen, Amen Amazing Grace Christian Learning Center . Fermina Compd., Brgy. Vietnam. Sta Ana, Taytay , Rizal Tel. no. 658-2821 Chapel Service THEME: VALUING GOD’S GIFT SUB-THEME: God Gave Me a Special Book AUGUST 5, 2013 8:00 AM Prelude Lighting of gilgamesh hero candle Opening the war photo essay bible *Call of Worship Leader: The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. People: He makes me lie down in hero, green pastures.

He leads me beside still waters . Amazing Grace , Bible , Christianity 310 Words | 2 Pages. Joyce Simmons 802 Words Monday/Wednesday 2-3:15 Primary . War Photo Essay. Focus Film Evaluation Radio Years ago I watched a movie for the first time that honestly changed the way I think. The movie Radio is based on the true story of what you essay James “Radio” Kennedy and T.L. Hanna High School football coach Harold Jones. It tells the story of a young mentally challenged man who is taken under the wing of war photo a high school football. To Write. Actor , American film actors , Film 813 Words | 3 Pages.

Theology of Grace There are many different ways to interpret the vietnam war photo theology of grace . In this paper, I will be discussing four . major theologians who have the most popular insights on reservation system grace . These theologians include Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, and Rahner who all have their own unique perspective on grace . War Photo. All of their theories seem to intertwine with one another but each individual one has a different twist that makes them slightly different. The first theologian I’m going to discuss is Augustine. Adam and Eve , Augustine of Hippo , God 846 Words | 3 Pages. Making Dreams Come True The movie Miracle tells the inspiring story of the 1980 United States hockey team and their journey to becoming the . Discount 2012. best hockey team in the world. Any hockey fan would be a perfect contender for watching the movie . The movie explores the many struggles that the team has to face to conquer their way through the Olympics, including on and off the ice. At a time when the country is in a period of struggle with the Cold War, Coach Herb Brooks has goals for the team that seem. Aerosmith , Cold War , Entertainment 1183 Words | 3 Pages. feeling the essay way the music is what you essay sounding, keeps your heart pounding throughout the movie . Vietnam Essay. Road to Perdition had more of a focus on the editing and . the suspense of the plot to keep you engaged.

The ability to keep the movie interesting throughout is an easy task in both films, given their plot. It is the extensive attention to detail in Apocalypse now that makes it one of the bachelor thesis themen best movies ever made, but it is also the vietnam power the movie has to make every viewer relate to the stresses that Martin Sheen is dealing. Hero. Apocalypse Now , Benjamin L. Willard , Film 1050 Words | 3 Pages. The Lego Movie At the beginning of Phil Lord and Christopher Miller’s 21 Jump Street, their 2012 cop comedy that was a repurposing the . Vietnam. television show that ran from 1987-1991, Deputy Chief Hardy (Nick Offerman), explains to two young cops (Channing Tatum and Jonah Hill) that they’re being assigned to use case reservation system, a unit in which they’ll be impersonating high school students to vietnam, investigate drug crimes. “We’re reviving a canceled undercover police program from the ’80s and revamping it for modern times,” Hardy. 21 Jump Street , Brickfilm , Channing Tatum 1562 Words | 4 Pages. The Great Escape Movie Review Yash Desai *POW = Prisoner of War “The Great Escape” directed by John Sturges is gilgamesh a movie of vietnam essay . high standard and excellence. This action packed adventure, released in 1963, takes place in Germany at the peak of World War II. Taking us back to 1942, The Great Escape documents the escape of 76 prisoners from a special Stalag (prison camp), designed specifically for them. By contrasting color cinematography with a classical soundtrack, the movie successfully blends the.

Film , Film score , James Garner 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Jr. Submitted To: M. Mariner Honors Language Arts 9 Period: . Seventh May 30th, 2007 [pic] “The Three Graces ” as they were called were if not the, then one of the least mentioned in Greek Mythology. Some today do not know who they may be. Although, inside of us all is a remnant piece of theme code them in us that makes us as we are. I think they are important because. Antonio Canova , Aphrodite , Charites 632 Words | 3 Pages. Analytical View of Armageddon Movie. films, such as Citizen Kane and The Grapes of Wrath, that actually taught us about war photo life, and then there are films that are just were made for pure . entertainment value.

One such film, Armageddon, directed by use case study system, Michael Bay, is a science-fiction, action movie that was solely used for entertainment purposes. Vietnam War Photo Essay. Armageddon is thesis discount code 2012 about an war photo asteroid coming toward earth that will totally destroy mankind and the planet. No one saw the asteroid plunging towards Earth until it was too late. “Well our object collision. Armageddon , Ben Affleck , Bruce Willis 987 Words | 3 Pages. ?1. Introductions. What is your reaction to Platoon? How is vietnam war photo essay it similar and/or different to other war films you have seen? What is the film’s central focus?

After . watching Platoon, I dropped to marveling why Oliver Stone was adept to make such an what scares you essay effective movie without falling into the trick Truffaut talked about - how he made the video riveting without making it exhilarating. Vietnam. Here's how I think he did it. He forsook the choreography that is standard in essay, nearly all war movies. He abandoned any try to make it. Apocalypse Now , Charlie Sheen , Oliver Stone 1199 Words | 4 Pages. Social Graces - More popularly known as good manners and etiquette is not a “put-on” or “add-on” to one’s personality. Manners - Says . Webster, “are social conduct or rules of essay conduct, as shown in the prevalent customs; habitual deportment, especially with reference to polite conventions.” Etiquette - The term etiquette seems stilted or phony, but consider that etiquette is merely a name for a pattern of behavior that is based on consideration for others, appropriateness and good taste, and. Etiquette , Etiquette in gilgamesh being, North America , Human behavior 520 Words | 3 Pages. This scene is the last scene of the movie . It takes place at the old home that the war photo essay crew lived in when the first movie came out. . The crew(Dom, Brian, Letty, Mia, roman, Tej, Han, and discount code 2012, Brian’s child) are gathered together in the yard. Essay. Starting the scene Roman comes out of the what house and tells Tej not to burn the barbeque again(implying that this wasn’t the first time it had happened, with Tej replying that he never burned it before. Then it the scene switches focus to Brian, Mia, and their son in which.

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Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and vietnam, invasive winter annual production in what scares you essay, California deserts. Primary production in deserts is war photo essay, limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to be influenced by comparative essay, both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is war photo, not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. To Write An Essay. The greatest production of vietnam war photo, invasive grasses and native forbs in the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. Theme. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by vietnam essay, November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to soziale arbeit water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the vietnam war photo fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and comparative introductions, native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of precipitation and essay, secondarily dependent on bachelor thesis arbeit, soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to vietnam essay grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and gilgamesh essay, increasing the risk of fire.

Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to war photo essay authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to study of railway reservation system shift, such as in California where the extent of war photo essay, arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Gilgamesh Being Hero. Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by invasions of war photo essay, non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.

2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in bachelor thesis arbeit, fire size and frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.

2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of high rainfall result in vietnam war photo, high production by comparative introductions, native and war photo essay, invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of thesis themen, invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of vietnam war photo essay, greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and what scares, Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in essay, productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of gilgamesh essay hero, fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). In the desert this range is more likely to essay be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. Scares. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in war photo essay, arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and bachelor thesis, Johnson 1999 ). Vietnam War Photo Essay. In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.

2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by ideas an essay, N and water suggests that the vietnam essay build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Essay Introductions. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the vietnam war photo fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and water availability on bachelor thesis soziale themen, biomass production. War Photo Essay. By using classification and gilgamesh essay being hero, regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the data for thresholds of war photo, soil N and consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of ideas to write an essay on college, total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to better determine the effects of within-season precipitation variability on vietnam essay, production and ideas to write on college, winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and essay, field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.

Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and to write, interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.

There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from vietnam each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to scares you essay achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . Vietnam War Photo. After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. madritensis and A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and thesis theme, Sala ( 2002 ) and vietnam war photo essay, constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Scares You Essay. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in vietnam war photo essay, order to reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of water into the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and gilgamesh being, channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit.

Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of vietnam war photo, water out of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by use case of railway system, relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of vietnam, 1 week. Because of a lack of rain during the late winter and gilgamesh being, early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.

Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of essay, NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and comparative, high-rainfall plots received six applications of 0.84 cm of water. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and vietnam, 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to discount code the 70 year mean ± SD of vietnam, 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the introductions small number of A. tessellata that germinated, an war photo allometric relationship between plant width and height and introductions, plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of vietnam war photo, 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of eight individuals from each treatment for which height and comparative essay introductions, width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60°C to constant mass and weighed.

Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in essay, the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W). In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and code, one site was located in the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. War Photo. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and use case study of railway reservation, Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and vietnam, invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at scares the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. War Photo. tectorum , and Schismus spp.

Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and thesis theme discount, 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the vietnam war photo sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the comparative introductions statistical analyses.

We centered each plot on vietnam war photo essay, an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and essay being, 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. War Photo. In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in comparative essay, determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in vietnam war photo essay, this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). To Write. In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of war photo, each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in gilgamesh essay hero, a randomized block design, with the exception of vietnam essay, PJ-low N where the what limited availability of trees and war photo, shrubs resulted in ideas an essay, nine blocks. At the vietnam essay PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in discount code, 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites. Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in war photo, 2002.

We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of use case of railway reservation system, production, which varied by site and vietnam war photo, year depending on temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of gilgamesh being, each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on vietnam, the north- and south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for comparative essay introductions, one CB site and war photo, one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Being Hero. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and war photo essay, unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of thesis theme code 2012, precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. War Photo. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).

A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and to write, the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the vietnam essay spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from scares PJ-high N. Vietnam Essay. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the essay desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and vietnam, is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to what you essay interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub. This conversion was applied to all sites and treatments in vietnam, all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in scares you essay, all plots for extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and vietnam war photo, NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for gilgamesh being, NO 3 ? and vietnam essay, NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to what scares you essay an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and vietnam, summing the measured soil N with the use case N fertilizer added. In the essay cases of gilgamesh hero, outliers or missing data, the vietnam war photo essay mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for comparative essay, the split-plot design. Essay. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the bachelor soziale arbeit themen effect of N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Vietnam War Photo. Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.

All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.

2006 ). In addition, CART is robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the species of use case of railway reservation system, tree or shrub about which the essay plot was located. Amount of discount, precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and vietnam war photo, April.

Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the thesis theme discount amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by war photo essay, a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in thesis arbeit, the Yucca Valley region was characterized by war photo, four precipitation events; one each in December and January, and two in February (Online resource 1). After the water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to ideas three applications of water and approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the war photo VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in bachelor soziale arbeit, mid-April and VWC decreased to essay zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and soil N treatments.

At the end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the what you essay plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by vietnam war photo, second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for either species.

Field fertilization of soziale arbeit, natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by vietnam war photo, each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.

SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.

SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in system, calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in war photo, final model.

a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for other abbreviations and theme discount code 2012, variable definitions. Regression tree results on vietnam war photo essay, total biomass for what scares, each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the oval. Mean value of the response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for vietnam war photo essay, native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and use case, 3); the essay most frequently occurring variable from the you essay cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at war photo CB-high N, only precipitation was found to ideas an essay on college be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and war photo, resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split.

Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by to write an essay on college, winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at vietnam war photo PJ-low N was more responsive to discount code soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of vietnam war photo, soil N depending on the timing and amount of early and thesis themen, late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and vietnam war photo essay, 69% of model variance in CB and PJ, respectively.

The greater explanatory power of precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to increased soil N is scares, species or site specific, depending on antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). Vietnam Essay. In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in CB (2%) compared to ideas to write on college PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and vietnam war photo, do not include the severe drought year of 2007.

Given the importance of study reservation system, precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the interacting effects of soil N and vietnam war photo essay, precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and native forb cover.

In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Ideas To Write An Essay On College. Native forb cover is vietnam war photo, greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by soziale arbeit themen, nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. War Photo Essay. 1978 ; Mun and theme code 2012, Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at vietnam war photo PJ-low N and discount 2012, CB-high N where there is essay, inherently low grass cover. When grass cover is comparative essay introductions, high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the war photo native forbs.

It is unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the what exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in high within-treatment variability and essay, obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in you essay, the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of essay, fine fuel needed to carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for both ecosystem types at essay introductions 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in war photo essay, CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in scares, PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to vietnam war photo essay burning than CB due to essay introductions greater amounts of vietnam essay, woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and theme discount, Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s.

This is consistent with the findings of Brown and vietnam essay, Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in comparative, CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to war photo increased rainfall and bachelor thesis soziale themen, exotic grass invasion in vietnam essay, that period. Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and essay being hero, showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in war photo essay, these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and gilgamesh being hero, mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and N. War Photo Essay. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by essay, Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in essay, average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached.

Studies of fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of soziale, areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to essay burn in the absence of a period of wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of you essay, precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. War Photo Essay. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Study System. Such changes in essay, the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Use Case Study. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). Essay. In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at an essay least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is essay, a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). Gilgamesh Hero. In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from vietnam war photo this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for introductions, native forb cover, with the vietnam greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.

For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. The results from this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the individual biomass of B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is scares, more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by vietnam essay, SOP in use case study system, the high-N site and NDP/JFP at the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to essay the influence of introductions, temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.

Temperatures are rarely cold enough to vietnam essay result in decreased survival of use case study of railway reservation system, native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. Vietnam War Photo. The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in gilgamesh hero, further understanding the vietnam essay factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. Reservation System. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the interaction between soil N and vietnam, water availability on production of desert winter annuals.

We found that while native forbs and bachelor soziale themen, invasive grasses are limited by vietnam, water availability, the on college response to increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the vietnam essay risk of fire in some polluted areas. In addition to essay hero increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and war photo, decreased native forb cover at reservation system some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the vietnam war photo essay Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Barrows and what scares, L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Essay. Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to use case study of railway reservation the members of the E. War Photo. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for to write an essay on college, field and lab support.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Essay. Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and gilgamesh essay being, Plant Sciences University of essay, California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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Ebola Virus 4 Essay Research Paper EBOLA. Ebola Virus Essay Research Paper Ebola VirusDescriptions 9 . The Ebola Virus Essay Research Paper Ebola 13 . Ebola Virus Essay Research Paper Ebola Virus 3 . Ebola Essay Research Paper The Ebola virus 3 . Ebola Virus Essay Research Paper The Ebola 10 . Ebola Virus Essay Research Paper Ebola VirusAbstract 7 . Ebola Essay Research Paper EbolaEbola hemorrahagic fever 9 . Ebola Virus 4 Essay, Research Paper. Ebola virus, a member of the vietnam war photo Filoviridae, burst from obscurity with spectacular outbreaks of severe, haemorrhagic fever. It was first associated with an outbreak of thesis discount 318 cases and a case-fatality rate of 90% in Zaire and caused 150 deaths among 250 cases in Sudan. Smaller outbreaks continue to appear periodically, particularly in East, Central and southern Africa. Vietnam Essay. In 1989, a haemorrhagic disease was recognized among cynomolgus macaques imported into the United States from the Philippines. Strains of ideas an essay Ebola virus were isolated from these monkeys. Vietnam War Photo. Serologic studies in the Philippines and elsewhere in essay introductions Southeast Asia indicated that Ebola virus is a prevalent cause of infection among macaques (Manson 1989). These threadlike polymorphic viruses are highly variable in length apparently owing to concatemerization. However, the average length of an infectious virion appears to vietnam war photo be 920 nm. Reservation System. The virions are 80 nm in diameter with a helical nucleocapsid, a membrane made of 10 nm projections, and host cell membrane.

They contain a unique single-stranded molecule of noninfectious (negative sense ) RNA. The virus is composed of 7 polypeptides, a nucleoprotein, a glycoprotein, a polymerase and 4 other undesignated proteins. Proteins are produced from polyadenylated monocistronic mRNA species transcribed from virus RNA. The replication in and destruction of the host cell is rapid and produces a large number of viruses budding from the cell membrane. Epidemics have resulted from person to person transmission, nosocomial spread or laboratory infections. The mode of primary infection and the natural ecology of these viruses are unknown. War Photo Essay. Association with bats has been implicated directly in at least 2 episodes when individuals entered the what same bat-filled cave in Eastern Kenya. Ebola infections in Sudan in 1976 and 1979 occurred in essay workers of to write an essay a cotton factory containing thousands of bats in the roof. However, in all instances, study of antibody in bats failed to detect evidence of infection, and no virus was isolated form bat tissue. The index case in 1976 was never identified, but this large outbreak resulted in 280 deaths of 318 infections. The outbreak was primarily the war photo essay result of person to person spread and transmission by contaminated needles in outpatient and inpatient departments of a hospital and system, subsequent person to person spread in surrounding villages.

In serosurveys in Zaire, antibody prevalence to Ebola virus has been 3 to 7%. The incubation period for vietnam needle- transmitted Ebola virus is 5 to 7 days and that for person to person transmitted disease is 6 to 12 days. The virus spreads through the blood and is replicated in many organs. The histopathologic change is focal necrosis in these organs, including the liver, lymphatic organs, kidneys, ovaries and testes. The central lesions appear to be those affecting the vascular endothelium and the platelets.

The resulting manifestations are bleeding, especially in the mucosa, abdomen, pericardium and vagina. Capillary leakage appears to lead to loss of intravascular volume, bleeding, shock and the acute respiratory disorder seen in essay being fatal cases. Patients die of intractable shock. Those with severe illness often have sustained high fevers and war photo essay, are delirious, combative and difficult to control. The serologic method used in the discovery of Ebola was the direct immunofluorescent assay. The test is performed on a monolayer of scares you essay infected and vietnam, uninfected cells fixed on a microscopic slide. IgG- or IgM-specific immunoglobulin assays are performed. These tests may then be confirmed by using western blot or radioimmunoprecipitation. Virus isolation is also a highly useful diagnostic method, and is performed on suitably preserved serum, blood or tissue specimens stored at -70oC or freshly collected. TREATMENT OF EBOLA.

No specific antiviral therapy presently exists against Ebola virus, nor does interferon have any effect. Thesis Soziale Arbeit Themen. Past recommendations for isolation of the patient in a plastic isolator have given way to the more moderate recommendation of strict barrier isolation with body fluid precautions. This presents no excess risk to the hospital personnel and allows substantially better patient care, as shown in Table 2. Vietnam. The major factor in ideas to write nosocomial transmission is the vietnam war photo essay combination of the unawareness of the possibility of the disease by a worker who is also inattentive to the requirements of effective barrier nursing. after diagnosis, the risk of nosocomial transmission is small. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF EBOLA. The basic method of prevention and control is the interruption of person to theme discount code 2012 person spread of the virus. However, in vietnam war photo rural areas, this may be difficult because families are often reluctant to admit members to the hospital because of limited resources and the culturally unacceptable separation of sick or dying patients from the care of their family.

Experience with human disease and primate infection suggests that a vaccine inducing a strong cell- mediated response will be necessary for virus clearance and adequate protection. Neutralizing antibodies are not observed in convalescent patients nor do they occur in primates inoculated with killed vaccine. A vaccine expressing the glycoprotein in introductions vaccinia is vietnam essay, being prepared for laboratory evaluation. SELECTIVE PRESSURES AND CONSTRAINTS. It is of interest to determine, what, if any, limits are placed on bachelor thesis soziale arbeit themen virus variation. Despite high mutation rates and opportunities for genetic reassortment, many factors act to minimize emergence of new influenza A epidemics (Morse and Schluederberg 1988). even though avian and human influenza viruses are widespread (in humans an estimated 100 million infections yearly), pandemic influenza viruses emerge infrequently (every 10-40 years). Vietnam War Photo. Powerful constraints appear to exist since pandemic human influenza strains vary in bachelor soziale themen their H gene, whereas the neuraminidase and most other genes are conserved. These constraints on viral evolution are not surprising when one considers the selective pressures imposed by the host at each stage of the virus life cycle. Tissue tropism determinants, include site of entry, viral attachment proteins, host cell receptors, tissue- specific genetic elements (for example promoters), host cell enzymes (like proteinase), host transcription factors, and essay, host resistance factors such as age, nutrition and immunity.

Host factors contribute significantly: sequences such as hormonally responsive promoter elements and transcriptional regulatory factors can link viral expression to cell state. The interaction of virus and host is thus complex but highly ordered, and comparative, can be altered by changing a variety of conditions. Vietnam Essay. Unlike bacterial virulence, which is largely mediated by bacterial toxins and to write an essay, virulence factors, viral virulence often depends on host factors, such as cellular enzymes that cleave key viral molecules. Because virulence is multigenic, defects in almost any viral gene may attenuate a virus. For example, some reassortments of avian influenza viruses are less virulent in primates than are either parental strain, indicating that virulence is multigenic (Treanor and Murphy 1990). Viral and host populations can exist in equilibrium until changes in environmental conditions shift the war photo equilibrium and favour rapid evolution (Steinhauer and Holland 1987). Comparative Essay. It seems reasonable to expect that new viruses will emerge occasionally, but the vietnam essay stochastic and multifactorial nature of viral evolution makes it difficult to ideas to write on college predict such events. Essay. According to Doolittle, retrovirus evolution is sporadic, with retroviruses evolving at different rates in different situations. For instance, the reservation human endogenous retroviral element is vietnam war photo, shared with chimpanzees, indicating no change in over 8 million years, whereas strains of HIV have diverged in mere decades.

Endogenous retroviruses carried in the germline evolve slowly compared with infective retroviruses. Generation of new viral pathogens is rare, and often possible only thesis theme discount code, because of high mutation rates that permit many neutral mutations to accumulate before selective pressure forces a change. The seeming unpredictability of these events ensure that recognition of new pathogens must await their emergence. The proposed American fiscal budget for vietnam war photo essay 1995 allows allocations for the CDC which remain basically the same as those for past years and the $11.5 billion budget for the National Institutes of Health includes only a modest increase for non-AIDS infectious and immunological diseases research (Cassell 1994). In view of the magnitude of the problem, this budget is soziale arbeit themen, unacceptable. Currently, infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States infectious diseases directly account for 3 and indirectly account for essay 5 of the 10 leading causes of death, AIDS is the ninth leading cause. Infectious diseases account for 25% of all visits to physicians in bachelor thesis themen the United States. In total, the annual cost of AIDS and other infectious diseases reached $120 billion in 1992, about 15% of the nation’s total health-care expenditure. The expanding pool of immunodeficient patients due to essay the AIDS epidemic, cancer treatment, transplant recipients, and hemodialysis has caused an explosion of opportunistic infections due to a number of fungal, parasitic, viral and bacterial agents.

According to the Gail H. Cassel, president of the American Society of Microbiology, the soziale arbeit public health system is not prepared to meet the war photo challenges of new and re-emerging infections. Perhaps the most obvious defect is ideas on college, inadequate disease surveillance and reporting. In America, only one-quarter of the states have a professional position dedicated to surveillance of food-borne and waterborne diseases. In 1992, only $55000 was spent on vietnam federal, state and local levels tracking drug-resistant bacterial and viral infections. In addition, the public health laboratories are eroding. Overall, CDC’s budget for use case study of railway infectious diseases unrelated to AIDS has declined approximately 20% in the last decade. This is the vietnam war photo essay case in the developed world of the United States, and we in developing South Africa are certainly no better off in terms of disease surveillance and concomitant protection. Ideas An Essay On College. It should be clear that a mixture of basic and applied research related to infectious disease is needed.

Coupled with this, better diagnostic techniques, prevention strategies and risk factor analysis is needed. Finally, enhanced communication among health care professionals and the public is integral in coming to terms and dealing with this issue. The American National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) plans to develop a research and training infrastructure to vietnam war photo essay elucidate the mechanisms of molecular evolution and drug resistance and to learn more about actual disease transmission through molecular and environmental studies and to continue their emphasis on vaccine development. For example, NIAID-funded research has already led to comparative introductions the creation of a new Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine which is expected to save nearly $400 million in health-care costs each year. Similarly, the NIH spent less than $27 million dollars to find the connection between Helicobacter pylori and chronic peptic ulcers, yet using antibacterial therapy for the disease will save $760 million dollars in health care costs annually. Given the war photo diverse nature of threats from infectious diseases, it is not adequate merely to face each crisis as it emerges, as this may provide a strategy which proves to be too little and too late. Instead, a more holistic approach is required. This must include a global perspective as well as the need to address the issue of infectious disease within the context of shared environmental responsibility. Improved health care derived from socioeconomic betterment is crucial, as are long term policies involving systems thinking as opposed to the limiting nature of long term over-specialization.

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